Novel cyanophage photosynthetic gene psbA in the floodwater of a Japanese rice field.FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2009 Oct; 70(1):79-86.FM
The gene psbA, encoding the D1 protein involved in photosynthesis, was recently found in a number of cultured cyanophages infecting marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus and in environmental samples from marine and freshwaters. In this study, viral concentrates were prepared by sampling the floodwaters from each of four plots in a Japanese rice field: (1) no fertilizer; (2) P and K chemical fertilizers; (3) N, P and K chemical fertilizers; and (4) chemical fertilizers with compost. Fragments of the cyanophage psbA gene were amplified by PCR from DNA in the viral concentrates, with primers psbA-F and psbA-R. Double denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was conducted to obtain different psbA clones. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the majority of the psbA sequences in the floodwater formed two unique groups, with their sequences being more closely related to those from freshwater samples than the sequences obtained from marine waters, suggesting that psbA genes in terrestrial aquatic environments are different from those in marine environments.