The phylogenetic relationships of cynopterine fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae: Cynopterinae).Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009 Dec; 53(3):772-83.MP
The subfamily Cynopterinae comprises ca. 24 species of pteropodid bats (Family Pteropodidae) distributed exclusively in South and Southeast Asia. Although some studies have supported monophyly of the subfamily, molecular analyses have produced contradictory results and there has been little agreement on relationships of cynopterines to other megabat groups. However, no previous studies have included a complete sampling of cynopterine genera. Here we describe a phylogenetic analysis of Cynopterinae based on more than 6000 bp from six different genes sampled in representatives of all 14 recognized genera. Our results support the monophyly of Cynopterinae but refute a close relationship of cynopterines with Nyctimeninae. Within Cynopterinae, our analyses consistently recovered two monophyletic clades, which we recommend be recognized formally as tribes: Cynopterini and Balionycterini. Biogeographic analyses indicate a Sundaland origin of the Cynopterinae and divergence date estimates suggest different timing of diversification of the two major cynopterine clades.