Significance of angiotensin II receptor blockers with high affinity to angiotensin II type 1 receptors for vascular protection in rats.Hypertens Res. 2009 Oct; 32(10):853-60.HR
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) vary in their binding affinities to angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors in in vitro experiments. We compared a high-affinity ARB, olmesartan, and a low-affinity ARB, valsartan, in terms of their vascular protective effects in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). Blood pressure was equally reduced by placebo, olmesartan (1 mg kg(-1)) and valsartan (3 mg kg(-1)) daily for 2 weeks. In another experiment, 12-week-old SHR-SP were fed 8% salt, and olmesartan (1 mg kg(-1)), valsartan (3 mg kg(-1)) or placebo were administered daily until a survival rate of 60% was reached. In the experiment using SHR-SP, the reduction of acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation and the increase of p22(phox) expression in the placebo-treated group were significantly attenuated by olmesartan and valsartan, but this attenuation was significantly greater for olmesartan. In immunohistological analysis, all areas positive for angiotensin II, p22(phox) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were significantly reduced by olmesartan and valsartan, but again this reduction was significantly greater for olmesartan. In salt-loaded SHR-SP, the number of days to reach a 60% survival rate was 25 and 42 in placebo and valsartan-treated rats, respectively, and this represented a significant difference. The survival rate in olmesartan-treated rats was 95% at day 42, when valsartan-treated rats reached 60% survival, and this difference was also significant. In the surviving rats, olmesartan, but not valsartan, augmented acetylcholine-induced vascular relaxation and attenuated vascular p22(phox) expression. Thus, heterogeneity in binding affinity to AT(1) receptors among ARBs may result in different degrees of vascular protection and lifespan extension.