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Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov; 90(5):1252-63.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may be the most important water-soluble antioxidant in human plasma. In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), approximately 13% of the US population was vitamin C deficient (serum concentrations <11.4 micromol/L).

OBJECTIVE

The aim was to determine the most current distribution of serum vitamin C concentrations in the United States and the prevalence of deficiency in selected subgroups.

DESIGN

Serum concentrations of total vitamin C were measured in 7277 noninstitutionalized civilians aged > or =6 y during the cross-sectional, nationally representative NHANES 2003-2004. The prevalence of deficiency was compared with results from NHANES III.

RESULTS

The overall age-adjusted mean from the square-root transformed (SM) concentration was 51.4 micromol/L (95% CI: 48.4, 54.6). The highest concentrations were found in children and older persons. Within each race-ethnic group, women had higher concentrations than did men (P < 0.05). Mean concentrations of adult smokers were one-third lower than those of nonsmokers (SM: 35.2 compared with 50.7 micromol/L and 38.6 compared with 58.0 micromol/L in men and women, respectively). The overall prevalence (+/-SE) of age-adjusted vitamin C deficiency was 7.1 +/- 0.9%. Mean vitamin C concentrations increased (P < 0.05) and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing socioeconomic status. Recent vitamin C supplement use or adequate dietary intake decreased the risk of vitamin C deficiency (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

In NHANES 2003-2004, vitamin C status improved, and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was significantly lower than that during NHANES III, but smokers and low-income persons were among those at increased risk of deficiency.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. rschleicher@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19675106

Citation

Schleicher, Rosemary L., et al. "Serum Vitamin C and the Prevalence of Vitamin C Deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 5, 2009, pp. 1252-63.
Schleicher RL, Carroll MD, Ford ES, et al. Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1252-63.
Schleicher, R. L., Carroll, M. D., Ford, E. S., & Lacher, D. A. (2009). Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(5), 1252-63. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27016
Schleicher RL, et al. Serum Vitamin C and the Prevalence of Vitamin C Deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1252-63. PubMed PMID: 19675106.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Serum vitamin C and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency in the United States: 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). AU - Schleicher,Rosemary L, AU - Carroll,Margaret D, AU - Ford,Earl S, AU - Lacher,David A, Y1 - 2009/08/12/ PY - 2009/8/14/entrez PY - 2009/8/14/pubmed PY - 2010/1/7/medline SP - 1252 EP - 63 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 90 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) may be the most important water-soluble antioxidant in human plasma. In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), approximately 13% of the US population was vitamin C deficient (serum concentrations <11.4 micromol/L). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the most current distribution of serum vitamin C concentrations in the United States and the prevalence of deficiency in selected subgroups. DESIGN: Serum concentrations of total vitamin C were measured in 7277 noninstitutionalized civilians aged > or =6 y during the cross-sectional, nationally representative NHANES 2003-2004. The prevalence of deficiency was compared with results from NHANES III. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted mean from the square-root transformed (SM) concentration was 51.4 micromol/L (95% CI: 48.4, 54.6). The highest concentrations were found in children and older persons. Within each race-ethnic group, women had higher concentrations than did men (P < 0.05). Mean concentrations of adult smokers were one-third lower than those of nonsmokers (SM: 35.2 compared with 50.7 micromol/L and 38.6 compared with 58.0 micromol/L in men and women, respectively). The overall prevalence (+/-SE) of age-adjusted vitamin C deficiency was 7.1 +/- 0.9%. Mean vitamin C concentrations increased (P < 0.05) and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing socioeconomic status. Recent vitamin C supplement use or adequate dietary intake decreased the risk of vitamin C deficiency (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In NHANES 2003-2004, vitamin C status improved, and the prevalence of vitamin C deficiency was significantly lower than that during NHANES III, but smokers and low-income persons were among those at increased risk of deficiency. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19675106/Serum_vitamin_C_and_the_prevalence_of_vitamin_C_deficiency_in_the_United_States:_2003_2004_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey__NHANES__ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27016 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -