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Paradoxical reduction in pancreatic glucagon with normalization of somatostatin and decrease in insulin in normoglycemic alloxan-diabetic dogs: a putative mechanism of glucagon irresponsiveness to hypoglycemia.
Endocrinology. 1990 Feb; 126(2):1096-104.E

Abstract

In alloxan-diabetic (A-D) dogs, plasma glucagon does not increase when glycemia is decreased by insulin. Therefore, as in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), increased glucose utilization is not matched by an increase in hepatic production. To explore further the abnormal effects of insulin on regulation of pancreatic glucagon, we studied content and morphology of pancreatic hormones in six normal (N) dogs, five hyperglycemic A-D (HD) dogs, and in four A-D dogs where normoglycemia was maintained by insulin (ND). Morphometric measurement of islets and of immunocytochemically localized A cells (glucagon) were performed by an image analysis system. In normal pancreas, islets of tail and body were bigger in size (tail = 4850 +/- 376 microns 2, body = 3256 +/- 198 microns 2), than the head (2009 +/- 207 microns 2). Glucagon content was 331 +/- 50 micrograms with a mean concentration of 8.5 +/- 0.9 micrograms/g in N dogs, and did not change in HD dogs (422 +/- 34 micrograms, 9.3 +/- 0.4 micrograms/g). With normoglycemia, glucagon content decreased by 5-fold (p less than 0.001). Morphometry indicated that, although A cell area per islet increased (2.7-fold), islet number decreased (70%), explaining the unchanged glucagon content in HD dogs. This decrease in islet number can also justify the dramatic glucagon decrease in ND dogs. Despite the 70% decrease in islet numbers in HD dogs, pancreatic somatostatin increased 3-fold (9.93 +/- 3.3 to 30.6 +/- 7.2 micrograms), indicating that its islet content was augmented 10-fold. Somatostatin content returned to normal with normoglycemia. Pancreatic insulin content in HD dogs was negligible (55 +/- 23 micrograms) when compared with that in N dogs (5500 micrograms) and it did not increase with normoglycemia. The distinct but markedly diminished insulin and proinsulin peaks in HD dogs nearly disappeared in ND dogs. Thus, in alloxan-diabetic HD dogs, 70% of islets are destroyed. A marked increase in glucagon in residual islets can explain the unchanged islet size despite the absence of B cells; however, the percent increase of somatostatin is larger than that of glucagon. Normoglycemia 1) normalizes somatostatin content, 2) further diminishes insulin and proinsulin synthesis presumably due to lack of hyperglycemic stimulus, and 3) paradoxically decreases pancreatic glucagon content 5-fold below its normal level. We hypothesize that with normalization of plasma insulin, glucagon content in each islet normalizes, but because of destruction of most islets, pancreatic glucagon content becomes extremely low.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1967577

Citation

Rastogi, K S., et al. "Paradoxical Reduction in Pancreatic Glucagon With Normalization of Somatostatin and Decrease in Insulin in Normoglycemic Alloxan-diabetic Dogs: a Putative Mechanism of Glucagon Irresponsiveness to Hypoglycemia." Endocrinology, vol. 126, no. 2, 1990, pp. 1096-104.
Rastogi KS, Lickley L, Jokay M, et al. Paradoxical reduction in pancreatic glucagon with normalization of somatostatin and decrease in insulin in normoglycemic alloxan-diabetic dogs: a putative mechanism of glucagon irresponsiveness to hypoglycemia. Endocrinology. 1990;126(2):1096-104.
Rastogi, K. S., Lickley, L., Jokay, M., Efendic, S., & Vranic, M. (1990). Paradoxical reduction in pancreatic glucagon with normalization of somatostatin and decrease in insulin in normoglycemic alloxan-diabetic dogs: a putative mechanism of glucagon irresponsiveness to hypoglycemia. Endocrinology, 126(2), 1096-104.
Rastogi KS, et al. Paradoxical Reduction in Pancreatic Glucagon With Normalization of Somatostatin and Decrease in Insulin in Normoglycemic Alloxan-diabetic Dogs: a Putative Mechanism of Glucagon Irresponsiveness to Hypoglycemia. Endocrinology. 1990;126(2):1096-104. PubMed PMID: 1967577.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Paradoxical reduction in pancreatic glucagon with normalization of somatostatin and decrease in insulin in normoglycemic alloxan-diabetic dogs: a putative mechanism of glucagon irresponsiveness to hypoglycemia. AU - Rastogi,K S, AU - Lickley,L, AU - Jokay,M, AU - Efendic,S, AU - Vranic,M, PY - 1990/2/1/pubmed PY - 1990/2/1/medline PY - 1990/2/1/entrez SP - 1096 EP - 104 JF - Endocrinology JO - Endocrinology VL - 126 IS - 2 N2 - In alloxan-diabetic (A-D) dogs, plasma glucagon does not increase when glycemia is decreased by insulin. Therefore, as in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), increased glucose utilization is not matched by an increase in hepatic production. To explore further the abnormal effects of insulin on regulation of pancreatic glucagon, we studied content and morphology of pancreatic hormones in six normal (N) dogs, five hyperglycemic A-D (HD) dogs, and in four A-D dogs where normoglycemia was maintained by insulin (ND). Morphometric measurement of islets and of immunocytochemically localized A cells (glucagon) were performed by an image analysis system. In normal pancreas, islets of tail and body were bigger in size (tail = 4850 +/- 376 microns 2, body = 3256 +/- 198 microns 2), than the head (2009 +/- 207 microns 2). Glucagon content was 331 +/- 50 micrograms with a mean concentration of 8.5 +/- 0.9 micrograms/g in N dogs, and did not change in HD dogs (422 +/- 34 micrograms, 9.3 +/- 0.4 micrograms/g). With normoglycemia, glucagon content decreased by 5-fold (p less than 0.001). Morphometry indicated that, although A cell area per islet increased (2.7-fold), islet number decreased (70%), explaining the unchanged glucagon content in HD dogs. This decrease in islet number can also justify the dramatic glucagon decrease in ND dogs. Despite the 70% decrease in islet numbers in HD dogs, pancreatic somatostatin increased 3-fold (9.93 +/- 3.3 to 30.6 +/- 7.2 micrograms), indicating that its islet content was augmented 10-fold. Somatostatin content returned to normal with normoglycemia. Pancreatic insulin content in HD dogs was negligible (55 +/- 23 micrograms) when compared with that in N dogs (5500 micrograms) and it did not increase with normoglycemia. The distinct but markedly diminished insulin and proinsulin peaks in HD dogs nearly disappeared in ND dogs. Thus, in alloxan-diabetic HD dogs, 70% of islets are destroyed. A marked increase in glucagon in residual islets can explain the unchanged islet size despite the absence of B cells; however, the percent increase of somatostatin is larger than that of glucagon. Normoglycemia 1) normalizes somatostatin content, 2) further diminishes insulin and proinsulin synthesis presumably due to lack of hyperglycemic stimulus, and 3) paradoxically decreases pancreatic glucagon content 5-fold below its normal level. We hypothesize that with normalization of plasma insulin, glucagon content in each islet normalizes, but because of destruction of most islets, pancreatic glucagon content becomes extremely low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0013-7227 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1967577/Paradoxical_reduction_in_pancreatic_glucagon_with_normalization_of_somatostatin_and_decrease_in_insulin_in_normoglycemic_alloxan_diabetic_dogs:_a_putative_mechanism_of_glucagon_irresponsiveness_to_hypoglycemia_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/endo/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/endo-126-2-1096 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -