Analysis of heterocyclic amines and beta-carbolines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea.Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2009 Mar; 26(3):298-305.FA
Heterocyclic amines (HAs), which form in meats during heating and cooking, are recognized as mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. In this study, 13 HAs and 2 beta-carbolines (BCs) were analyzed in cooked Korean meat products, including griddled bacon, griddled pork loin, boiled pork loin, boiled chicken meat, chicken meat stock, chicken breast for salad and chicken patty. The samples were either cooked in the laboratory or purchased from local fast-food restaurants. The HAs and BCs in the samples were separated using solid-phase extraction and were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The most frequently detected HAs and BCs in the cooked meats were harman (1-methyl-9H pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 990.9 ng g(-1)), norharman (9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole; 412.7 ng g(-1)) and PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 258.2 ng g(-1)). The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats. PhIP, which is classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, had levels of 258.2 and 168.2 ng g(-1) in the griddled pork loin and griddled bacon, respectively. The griddled bacon was the only sample containing TriMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,7,8-tetramethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 79.9 ng g(-1)). IQ (2-amino-3-methyl imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) and AalphaC (2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) were detected at trace levels in all samples.