Molecular characterization and susceptibility of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitals and the community in Vladivostok, Russia.Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Jun; 16(6):575-82.CM
A prospective study was conducted during an 8-month period, from August 2006 to April 2007, to describe the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus-associated infections. In addition, the molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibilities and antibiotic resistance determinants were identified in S. aureus isolates from hospitals and the community in Vladivostok, Russia. Among the 63 S. aureus isolates eligible for this study, methicillin resistance was observed in 48% (n = 30). Hospital-acquired strains accounted for 93% (28/30) of all methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. The major MRSA clone (sequence type (ST) 239, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type III, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-negative, with two related staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types (types 3 and 351)) represented 90% of all of the MRSA isolates. This clone was multidrug-resistant, and 41% of isolates showed resistance to rifampicin. Community-acquired MRSA isolates (n = 2) were categorized as ST30, SCCmecIV, spa type 19, and PVL-positive, and as ST8, SCCmecIV, of a novel spa type 826, and PVL-negative. Eight different STs were detected among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, of which 55% were PVL-positive. One MSSA clone, which was categorized as ST121, spa type 273, and PVL-positive, caused fatal community-acquired pneumonia infections. The strains predominantly isolated in hospitals in Russia belonged to the multidrug-resistant Brazilian/Hungarian ST239 MRSA clone; however, this clone has new antibiotic susceptibilities. Additionally, the emergence of PVL-positive MSSA strains with enhanced virulence was observed, warranting continued surveillance.