Assessment of changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile isolated from diarrheal patients in Hungary.Anaerobe. 2009 Dec; 15(6):237-40.A
150 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from diarrheal feces were collected from three parts of Hungary and the presence of genes responsible for toxin A and B, and binary toxin production were examined. MIC distribution against clindamycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and rifampin of 80 toxigenic strains selected from the above-mentioned strains and 20 large clostridial toxins (LCTs)-positive strains chosen from our earlier strain collection were determined. 80% of the examined 150 strains were positive for both tcdA and tcdB, and no toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive isolates were found during the study period. 5.3% of toxigenic strains proved to be positive for binary toxin too. Among binary toxin-positive strains, one strain showed the same pattern characteristic of PCR ribotype 027. Comparison of recent findings and our earlier results, the prevalence of toxin-producing and binary toxin-positive strains among C. difficile isolated from diarrheal specimens increased. No metronidazole resistant isolate was detected among strains isolated in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. The rates of resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin and rifampin among strains isolated between 2006 and 2007 were 25%, 27.5%, 25% and 6.3%, respectively. Erythromycin resistance was frequently associated with clindamycin and moxifloxacin resistance, however this resistant phenotype was not found among strains isolated in 2002-2003.