[Resection of talocalcaneal coalition in children and adolescents without and with osteotomy of the calcaneus].Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2009 Jun; 21(2):180-92.OO
Resection of the painful medial talocalcaneal fibrocartilaginous or bony bridge, thereby restoration of mobility of the peritalar joint complex; in case of flatfoot deformity realignment of the hindfoot and midfoot by medial sliding calcaneal osteotomy and in some cases correction of equinus contracture by intramuscular lengthening of the gastrocnemius muscle.
Before growth arrest: --Bony or fibrocartilaginous bridge at the medial or dorsomedial talocalcaneal region with or without pain. --Rigid flatfoot deformity caused by talocalcaneal coalition. After growth arrest: --Resection is indicated only in case of local pain or hindfoot deformity.
Resection is not indicated in cases without local pain or deformity after growth arrest or in cases with marked osteoarthritis of the talonavicular or talocalcaneal joint. If the cross section of the bony bridge exceeds 20 x 30 mm, resection is not recommended.
Longitudinal incision at the medial facet of the subtalar joint. Exposure of the bony bridge. Subsequent resection until the talocalcaneal joint line is clearly visible. Gentle mobilization of the contracted subtalar joint to regain inversion. After resection of the coalition the distance between the corresponding bone areas should measure at least 10 mm. Bone wax is used to prevent bleeding and the gap is filled with fatty tissue. Additionally, in some cases an intramuscular lengthening of the contracted gastrocnemius muscle is necessary. In case of flatfoot deformity alignment should be restored by calcaneal lengthening and/or medializing sliding calcaneal osteotomy.
The lower leg is immobilized in a cast for at least 2 weeks postoperatively; additional procedures require an extended period of immobilization. Afterwards, range of motion exercises are useful to regain motion of the peritalar joint complex.
24 resections of a talocalcaneal coalition in 22 pediatric or adolescent patients were carried out. The coalition was located at the medial joint facet in 18 cases and in the dorsomedial talocalcaneal region in seven cases (in one patient combination of both). Three patients presented with an additional calcaneonavicular coalition. A talocalcaneal bone bridge of the entire joint was found in five cases. In seven patients an intramuscular lengthening of the gastrocnemius muscle was necessary. In nine patients a calcaneal lengthening procedure, and in five patients a calcaneal sliding osteotomy were added. A lengthening in the region of a calcaneocuboid synostosis was untertaken in one case. After a mean follow-up of 21.2 months 17 patients are completely or nearly pain-free. Five patients still complain of pain, but are improved. Two patients were lost to follow-up.