Interactions of Trametes versicolor, Coriolopsis rigida and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the copper tolerance of Eucalyptus globulus.Chemosphere. 2009 Sep; 77(2):273-8.C
The presence of high levels of Cu in soil decreases the shoot and root dry weights of Eucalyptus globulus. However, higher plant tolerance of Cu has been observed in the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus deserticola. The hyphal length of G. deserticola was sensitive to low Cu concentrations, and the percentage of AM root colonisation and the metabolic activity of the AM fungus were also decreased by Cu. Therefore, a direct effect of Cu on the development of the AM fungus inside and outside the root cannot be ruled out. E. globulus colonised by G. deserticola had higher metal concentrations in the roots and shoots than do non-mycorrhizal plants; however, the absence of a higher root to shoot metal ratio in the mycorrhizal plants (1.70+/-0.11) indicated that G. deserticola did not play a filtering/sequestering role against Cu. The saprobe fungi Coriolopsis rigida and Trametes versicolor were able to remove Cu ions from the asparagine-glucose growth media. However, plants inoculated with C. rigida and T. versicolor did not accumulate more Cu than non-inoculated controls, and the growth of the plant was not increased in the presence of these fungi. However, C. rigida increased the shoot dry weight, AM root length colonisation, and metabolic mycelial activity of plants colonised with G. deserticola in the presence of Cu; only this saprobe-AM fungus combination increased the tolerance of E. globulus to Cu. Inoculation with G. deserticola and C. rigida increased the E. globulus Cu uptake to levels reached by hyperaccumulative plants.