Hypothermic robotic radical prostatectomy: impact on continence.J Endourol. 2009 Sep; 23(9):1443-50.JE
Radical prostatectomy undoubtedly causes inflammatory damage to surrounding neuromuscular tissues (i.e., bladder, urethra, and nerves) that may contribute to urinary incontinence. We report the use of local hypothermia during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy to attenuate this injury.
Regional pelvic cooling was achieved using cold intracorporeal irrigation and an endorectal cooling balloon (ECB). In all, 115 men undergoing hypothermic robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (hRLP) (case #667-782) were prospectively compared with a historical cohort (case #1-666). Intracorporeal rectal and neurovascular bundle temperatures (T) and intrarectal temperatures were measured. Continence was defined as zero urinary pads. Kaplan-Meier analysis of time to zero pads and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used.
Hypothermia was achieved in 112/115 patients; 6 were excluded (3 ECB malfunction, 2 prior radiation, and 1 completion prostatectomy). Median endorectal T = 18.7 degrees C (range 9.1-29.5 degrees C). Mean intracorporeal T = 25.58 degrees C (ECB + irrigation, range 19.4-34.0 degrees C). Three and 12-month hRLP zero pad rates were 81% to 89% and 100% for initial and extended cooling groups versus 65% and 89% for controls. Return to continence was significantly faster for hRLP versus controls: median time to zero pad use was 39 days for hRLP versus 62 days for controls. Multivariate analysis adjusting for American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score, nerve-sparing surgery, learning curve, international index of erectile function-5, age, and prostate weight demonstrated a significantly faster return to continence (hazard ratio = 1.526; 95% CI 1.11, 2.09). Trends toward improved continence were observed with colder temperatures and older patients.
Local hypothermia during prostatectomy resulted in a significant improvement in early postoperative zero pad continence rates. Longer and deeper cooling appears to be associated with improved continence, particularly among older patients.