Burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and serotype distribution among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in young children in Europe: impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and considerations for future conjugate vaccines.Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Mar; 14(3):e197-209.IJ
The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008.
Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data.
Before widespread immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the overall mean annual incidence of IPD in children aged <2 years was 44.4/100 000. The mean case fatality rate for IPD was 3.5%, and resistant rates were approximately 23% for penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration > or =2mg/l), 41% for erythromycin, and 9% (< or =5 years) for third-generation cephalosporins. The most common serotypes causing IPD were 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F, all of which are included in PCV7. Vaccine serotype coverage ranged from 37% to 100% for PCV7, with mean increases in coverage of 7% and 16% for investigational 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, respectively. The most common IPD isolates since PCV7 introduction in Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and the UK were serotypes 1, 19A, 3, 6A, and 7F.
With routine effective use of PCV7, a general decline in IPD, antibiotic non-susceptibility, and vaccine serotypes has been observed. The most common IPD isolates since PCV7 introduction are serotypes 1, 19A, 3, 6A, and 7F, highlighting the need for inclusion of these serotypes in future vaccine formulations.