Antioxidants and periodontitis in 60-70-year-old men.J Clin Periodontol 2009; 36(10):843-9JC
The aim was to investigate the association between periodontal health and the serum levels of various antioxidants including carotenoids, retinol and vitamin E in a homogenous group of Western European men.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A representative sample of 1258 men aged 60-70 years, drawn from the population of Northern Ireland, was examined between 2001 and 2003. Each participant had six or more teeth, completed a questionnaire and underwent a clinical periodontal examination. Serum lipid-soluble antioxidant levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Multivariable analysis was carried out using logistic regression with adjustment for possible confounders. Models were constructed using two measures of periodontal status (low- and high-threshold periodontitis) as dependent variables and the fifths of each antioxidant as a predictor variable.
The levels of alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were highly significantly lower in the men with low-threshold periodontitis (p<0.001). These carotenoids were also significantly lower in high-threshold periodontitis. There were no significant differences in the levels of lutein, lycopene, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol or retinol in relation to periodontitis. In fully adjusted models, there was an inverse relationship between a number of carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin) and low-threshold periodontitis. beta-Carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were the only antioxidants that were associated with an increased risk of high-threshold severe periodontitis. The adjusted odds ratio for high-threshold periodontitis in the lowest fifth relative to the highest fifth of beta-cryptoxanthin was 4.02 (p=0.003).
It is concluded that low serum levels of a number of carotenoids, in particular beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene, were associated with an increased prevalence of periodontitis in this homogenous group of 60-70-year-old Western European men.