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Contribution of individual organ mass loss to weight loss-associated decline in resting energy expenditure.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Weight loss leads to reduced resting energy expenditure (REE) independent of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss, but the effect of changes in FFM composition is unclear.

OBJECTIVE

We hypothesized that a decrease in REE adjusted for FFM with weight loss would be partly explained by a disproportionate loss in the high metabolic activity component of FFM.

DESIGN

Forty-five overweight and obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.7-46.8] aged 22-46 y followed a low-calorie diet for 12.7 +/- 2.2 wk. Body composition was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and a 4-compartment model. REE measured by indirect calorimetry (REEm) was compared with REE calculated from detailed body-composition analysis (REEc) by using specific organ metabolic rates (ie, organ REE/mass).

RESULTS

Weight loss was 9.5 +/- 3.4 kg (8.0 +/- 2.9 kg FM and 1.5 +/- 3.1 kg FFM). Decreases in REE (-8%), free triiodothyronine concentrations (-8%), muscle (-3%), heart (-5%), liver (-4%), and kidney mass (-6%) were observed (all P < 0.05). Relative loss in organ mass was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than was the change in low metabolically active FFM components (muscle, bone, and residual mass). After weight loss, REEm - REEc decreased from 0.24 +/- 0.58 to 0.01 +/- 0.44 MJ/d (P = 0.01) and correlated with the decrease in free triiodothyronine concentrations (r = 0.33, P < 0.05). Women with high adaptive thermogenesis (defined as REEm - REEc < -0.17 MJ/d) had less weight loss and conserved FFM, liver, and kidney mass.

CONCLUSIONS

After weight loss, almost 50% of the decrease in REEm was explained by losses in FFM and FM. The variability in REEm explained by body composition increased to 60% by also considering the weight of individual organs.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany.

    , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Adult
    Body Fluid Compartments
    Diet, Reducing
    Energy Metabolism
    Female
    Humans
    Middle Aged
    Obesity
    Organ Size
    Overweight
    Rest
    Thermogenesis
    Triiodothyronine
    Weight Loss
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19710198

    Citation

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja, et al. "Contribution of Individual Organ Mass Loss to Weight Loss-associated Decline in Resting Energy Expenditure." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 90, no. 4, 2009, pp. 993-1001.
    Bosy-Westphal A, Kossel E, Goele K, et al. Contribution of individual organ mass loss to weight loss-associated decline in resting energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):993-1001.
    Bosy-Westphal, A., Kossel, E., Goele, K., Later, W., Hitze, B., Settler, U., ... Müller, M. J. (2009). Contribution of individual organ mass loss to weight loss-associated decline in resting energy expenditure. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90(4), pp. 993-1001. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27402.
    Bosy-Westphal A, et al. Contribution of Individual Organ Mass Loss to Weight Loss-associated Decline in Resting Energy Expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):993-1001. PubMed PMID: 19710198.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Contribution of individual organ mass loss to weight loss-associated decline in resting energy expenditure. AU - Bosy-Westphal,Anja, AU - Kossel,Elke, AU - Goele,Kristin, AU - Later,Wiebke, AU - Hitze,Britta, AU - Settler,Uta, AU - Heller,Martin, AU - Glüer,Claus-Christian, AU - Heymsfield,Steven B, AU - Müller,Manfred J, Y1 - 2009/08/26/ PY - 2009/8/28/entrez PY - 2009/8/28/pubmed PY - 2009/10/10/medline SP - 993 EP - 1001 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 90 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Weight loss leads to reduced resting energy expenditure (REE) independent of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) loss, but the effect of changes in FFM composition is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that a decrease in REE adjusted for FFM with weight loss would be partly explained by a disproportionate loss in the high metabolic activity component of FFM. DESIGN: Forty-five overweight and obese women [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.7-46.8] aged 22-46 y followed a low-calorie diet for 12.7 +/- 2.2 wk. Body composition was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and a 4-compartment model. REE measured by indirect calorimetry (REEm) was compared with REE calculated from detailed body-composition analysis (REEc) by using specific organ metabolic rates (ie, organ REE/mass). RESULTS: Weight loss was 9.5 +/- 3.4 kg (8.0 +/- 2.9 kg FM and 1.5 +/- 3.1 kg FFM). Decreases in REE (-8%), free triiodothyronine concentrations (-8%), muscle (-3%), heart (-5%), liver (-4%), and kidney mass (-6%) were observed (all P < 0.05). Relative loss in organ mass was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than was the change in low metabolically active FFM components (muscle, bone, and residual mass). After weight loss, REEm - REEc decreased from 0.24 +/- 0.58 to 0.01 +/- 0.44 MJ/d (P = 0.01) and correlated with the decrease in free triiodothyronine concentrations (r = 0.33, P < 0.05). Women with high adaptive thermogenesis (defined as REEm - REEc < -0.17 MJ/d) had less weight loss and conserved FFM, liver, and kidney mass. CONCLUSIONS: After weight loss, almost 50% of the decrease in REEm was explained by losses in FFM and FM. The variability in REEm explained by body composition increased to 60% by also considering the weight of individual organs. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19710198/Contribution_of_individual_organ_mass_loss_to_weight_loss_associated_decline_in_resting_energy_expenditure_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27402 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -