Mentholated cigarette smoking and brachial artery, carotid artery, and aortic vascular function.Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2009 Jun; 37(4):234-40.TK
We investigated possible acute effects of mentholated versus nonmentholated cigarette smoking on vascular functions and left ventricular diastolic functions in otherwise healthy young smokers.
The study included 20 otherwise healthy smokers (6 women, 14 men; mean age 25.6 years) and 22 healthy nonsmokers (12 women, 10 men; mean age 25.1 years). Ultrasound and echocardiographic examinations were performed to determine baseline characteristics for the brachial artery, aorta, and carotid artery, including brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD), aortic and carotid stiffness index (SI), distensibility, and elastic modulus (EM). On day 2, each subject smoked either two mentholated or nonmentholated cigarettes and ultrasound and echocardiographic examinations were repeated. The procedure was repeated 15 days later with each subject smoking the other type of cigarette.
From the baseline level of 14.0+/-9.0%, FMD decreased significantly to 8.3+/-3.2% (p=0.012) and to 9.8+/-5.5% (p=0.025) after smoking mentholated and nonmentholated cigarettes, respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significant only with mentholated cigarettes (p=0.003). Increases in heart rate and rate-pressure product were significant in both groups, being more prominent with mentholated cigarettes. Both types of cigarettes resulted in significant prolongation of mitral E deceleration time and decrease in mitral E/A ratio. Changes in aortic SI and EM were significant only with mentholated cigarettes, while changes in carotid SI and EM were significant in both groups. Menthol-associated changes in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, rate-pressure product, carotid strain, and carotid SI parameters differed significantly from those seen after nonmentholated cigarette smoking (p=0.027, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.037, and p<0.001, respectively).
Our findings show that mentholated cigarettes are not safer than nonmentholated cigarettes and that menthol-associated acute impairment is more severe in many parameters of elasticity and stiffness.