Fused ring construction around pyrrole, indole, and related compounds via palladium-catalyzed oxidative coupling with alkynes.J Org Chem. 2009 Oct 02; 74(19):7481-8.JO
The selective synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted carbazoles can be performed effectively through the palladium-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions of N-substituted indoles or their carboxylic acid derivatives with alkynes. Unsymmetrically octasubstituted carbazoles can also be obtained by the stepwise couplings of 1-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylic acid with two different alkynes. In addition, the present coupling procedure is applicable to the synthesis of other various heteroarenes possessing di-, tri-, and tetracyclic cores. Some of the products exhibit intense fluorescence in the solid state.