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Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2003 Mar 01; 43(2):141-8.FM

Abstract

Cyanobacterial mats at hot springs on the shore of the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya, were investigated regarding species community and cyanobacterial toxin content. The hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF and -YR, and the neurotoxin anatoxin-a were present. The mats were dominated by Phormidium terebriformis, Oscillatoria willei, Spirulina subsalsa and Synechococcus bigranulatus. The concentration of microcystins in mat samples, ranged from 221 to 845 microg microcystin-LR equivalents g(-1) DW of mat. Anatoxin-a concentrations ranged from 10 to 18 microg g(-1) DW of mat. A contribution of the cyanobacterial toxins from the hot spring mats to the mass mortalities of Lesser Flamingos is suggested by: (a), the presence of hot spring cyanobacterial cells and cell fragments, and high concentrations of the cyanobacterial hepato- and neurotoxins in flamingo stomach contents and faecal pellets; (b), observations of neurological signs of bird poisoning at the lake. Cyanobacterial toxins in stomach contents, intestine and fecal pellets were 0.196 microg g(-1) fresh weight (FW) for the microcystins and 4.34 microg g(-1) FW for anatoxin-a. Intoxication with cyanobacterial toxins could occur by uptake of detached cyanobacterial cells from the mats, as the flamingos need to drink fresh or brackish water, and to wash their feathers daily, which they do in the vicinity of the hot springs, where salinity is lower than in the main body of water of the lake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Limnology of Stratified Lakes, Alte Fischerhütte 2, D-16775 Stechlin-Neuglobsow, Germany. krie@igb-berlin.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19719674

Citation

Krienitz, Lothar, et al. "Contribution of Hot Spring Cyanobacteria to the Mysterious Deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya." FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 43, no. 2, 2003, pp. 141-8.
Krienitz L, Ballot A, Kotut K, et al. Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2003;43(2):141-8.
Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Kotut, K., Wiegand, C., Pütz, S., Metcalf, J. S., Codd, G. A., & Pflugmacher, S. (2003). Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 43(2), 141-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2003.tb01053.x
Krienitz L, et al. Contribution of Hot Spring Cyanobacteria to the Mysterious Deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2003 Mar 1;43(2):141-8. PubMed PMID: 19719674.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser Flamingos at Lake Bogoria, Kenya. AU - Krienitz,Lothar, AU - Ballot,Andreas, AU - Kotut,Kiplagat, AU - Wiegand,Claudia, AU - Pütz,Stephanie, AU - Metcalf,James S, AU - Codd,Geoffrey A, AU - Pflugmacher,Stephan, PY - 2009/9/2/entrez PY - 2003/3/1/pubmed PY - 2003/3/1/medline SP - 141 EP - 8 JF - FEMS microbiology ecology JO - FEMS Microbiol Ecol VL - 43 IS - 2 N2 - Cyanobacterial mats at hot springs on the shore of the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya, were investigated regarding species community and cyanobacterial toxin content. The hepatotoxins microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF and -YR, and the neurotoxin anatoxin-a were present. The mats were dominated by Phormidium terebriformis, Oscillatoria willei, Spirulina subsalsa and Synechococcus bigranulatus. The concentration of microcystins in mat samples, ranged from 221 to 845 microg microcystin-LR equivalents g(-1) DW of mat. Anatoxin-a concentrations ranged from 10 to 18 microg g(-1) DW of mat. A contribution of the cyanobacterial toxins from the hot spring mats to the mass mortalities of Lesser Flamingos is suggested by: (a), the presence of hot spring cyanobacterial cells and cell fragments, and high concentrations of the cyanobacterial hepato- and neurotoxins in flamingo stomach contents and faecal pellets; (b), observations of neurological signs of bird poisoning at the lake. Cyanobacterial toxins in stomach contents, intestine and fecal pellets were 0.196 microg g(-1) fresh weight (FW) for the microcystins and 4.34 microg g(-1) FW for anatoxin-a. Intoxication with cyanobacterial toxins could occur by uptake of detached cyanobacterial cells from the mats, as the flamingos need to drink fresh or brackish water, and to wash their feathers daily, which they do in the vicinity of the hot springs, where salinity is lower than in the main body of water of the lake. SN - 1574-6941 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19719674/Contribution_of_hot_spring_cyanobacteria_to_the_mysterious_deaths_of_Lesser_Flamingos_at_Lake_Bogoria_Kenya_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/femsec/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2003.tb01053.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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