Protective effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine against rotenone-induced apoptosis.Neurotoxicology. 2009 Nov; 30(6):1114-9.N
Histamine H(2) receptor antagonists have been reported to improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and to exert neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the H(2) receptor antagonist ranitidine on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, focusing on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspases (CASPs)-mediated apoptotic events. Ranitidine blocked the rotenone-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P38 MAPK (P38), and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). Ranitidine also prevented the down-regulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and the up-regulation of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) by rotenone. Furthermore, ranitidine not only attenuated rotenone-induced cleavages of CASP9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and CASP3, but also suppressed CASP3 enzyme activity. These results indicate that ranitidine protects against rotenone-induced apoptosis, inhibiting phosphorylation of JNK and P38, and activation of CASPs in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.