Attributional style and anxiety sensitivity as maintenance factors of posttraumatic stress symptoms: A prospective examination of a diathesis-stress model.J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2009 Dec; 40(4):544-57.JB
Diathesis-stress models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assert that traumatic events function as stressors that interact with vulnerabilities to influence the development of PTSD. The present study prospectively examined negative attributional style (NAS) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) as maintenance factors for PTSD in female adult sexual assault victims. A diathesis-stress model was tested by examining interactions between the vulnerabilities and negative life events. The present study included both the traditional three-factor model of PTSD (re-experiencing, avoidance and emotional numbing, and arousal) and the dysphoria four-factor model of PTSD (re-experiencing, avoidance, arousal, and dysphoria). Robust regression analyses revealed that negative life events at Time 2 significantly predicted increases in all clusters of the three-factor model (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal) and the re-experiencing, arousal, and dysphoria clusters of the four-factor model (but not avoidance). Neither NAS nor AS significantly independently predicted any of the symptom clusters for either model. Both NAS and AS interacted with negative life events to predict increases in the avoidance and numbing symptoms. However, examination of the dysphoria four-factor model of PTSD revealed that the NAS and AS interactions with negative life events only predicted dysphoria symptoms.