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Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts.

Abstract

Pulp fibroblasts express various pro-inflammatory mediators leading to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the progression of pulpitis. We hypothesized that pulp fibroblasts play roles in the recognition of invaded caries-related bacteria and the subsequent innate immune responses. We found clear expressions of TLR2, NOD1, and NOD2 and a faint expression of TLR4 in human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF) by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. We also observed that various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, prostaglandin E(2) and its key enzyme COX-2, not iNOS or caspase-1, were markedly up-regulated by stimulation with these TLR and NOD agonists. More over, the NOD2 agonist acted synergistically with the TLR2, not the TLR4, agonist to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in HDPF. These findings indicate that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in HDPF are functional receptors, and NOD2 is a modulator of signals transmitted through TLR2 in pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Conservative Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8504, Japan.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Journal of dental research 88:8 2009 Aug pg 762-7

    MeSH

    Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine
    Apoptosis
    Cells, Cultured
    Chemokine CCL2
    Chemokine CXCL10
    Cyclooxygenase 2
    Dental Pulp
    Diaminopimelic Acid
    Dinoprostone
    Escherichia coli
    Fibroblasts
    Humans
    Inflammation Mediators
    Interleukin-6
    Interleukin-8
    Lipopeptides
    Lipopolysaccharides
    Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein
    Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
    Pulpitis
    Signal Transduction
    Streptococcus mutans
    Toll-Like Receptor 2
    Toll-Like Receptor 4
    Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19734466

    Citation

    Hirao, K, et al. "Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in Pulp Fibroblasts." Journal of Dental Research, vol. 88, no. 8, 2009, pp. 762-7.
    Hirao K, Yumoto H, Takahashi K, et al. Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts. J Dent Res. 2009;88(8):762-7.
    Hirao, K., Yumoto, H., Takahashi, K., Mukai, K., Nakanishi, T., & Matsuo, T. (2009). Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts. Journal of Dental Research, 88(8), pp. 762-7. doi:10.1177/0022034509341779.
    Hirao K, et al. Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in Pulp Fibroblasts. J Dent Res. 2009;88(8):762-7. PubMed PMID: 19734466.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts. AU - Hirao,K, AU - Yumoto,H, AU - Takahashi,K, AU - Mukai,K, AU - Nakanishi,T, AU - Matsuo,T, PY - 2009/9/8/entrez PY - 2009/9/8/pubmed PY - 2009/9/30/medline SP - 762 EP - 7 JF - Journal of dental research JO - J. Dent. Res. VL - 88 IS - 8 N2 - Pulp fibroblasts express various pro-inflammatory mediators leading to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the progression of pulpitis. We hypothesized that pulp fibroblasts play roles in the recognition of invaded caries-related bacteria and the subsequent innate immune responses. We found clear expressions of TLR2, NOD1, and NOD2 and a faint expression of TLR4 in human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF) by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. We also observed that various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, prostaglandin E(2) and its key enzyme COX-2, not iNOS or caspase-1, were markedly up-regulated by stimulation with these TLR and NOD agonists. More over, the NOD2 agonist acted synergistically with the TLR2, not the TLR4, agonist to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in HDPF. These findings indicate that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in HDPF are functional receptors, and NOD2 is a modulator of signals transmitted through TLR2 in pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis. SN - 1544-0591 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19734466/Roles_of_TLR2_TLR4_NOD2_and_NOD1_in_pulp_fibroblasts_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022034509341779?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -