Roles of TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in pulp fibroblasts.
Pulp fibroblasts express various pro-inflammatory mediators leading to marked infiltration of inflammatory cells in the progression of pulpitis. We hypothesized that pulp fibroblasts play roles in the recognition of invaded caries-related bacteria and the subsequent innate immune responses. We found clear expressions of TLR2, NOD1, and NOD2 and a faint expression of TLR4 in human dental pulp fibroblasts (HDPF) by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. We also observed that various pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, prostaglandin E(2) and its key enzyme COX-2, not iNOS or caspase-1, were markedly up-regulated by stimulation with these TLR and NOD agonists. More over, the NOD2 agonist acted synergistically with the TLR2, not the TLR4, agonist to stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in HDPF. These findings indicate that TLR2, TLR4, NOD2, and NOD1 in HDPF are functional receptors, and NOD2 is a modulator of signals transmitted through TLR2 in pulpal immune responses, leading to progressive pulpitis.
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8504, Japan., , , ,
Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein
Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't