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Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support.
J Spec Oper Med. 2009 Summer; 9(3):74-8.JS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Little research has examined the role of protective factors such as psychological resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support in buffering against PTSD and depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of 272 OEF/OIF veterans completed a survey containing PTSD and depression screening measures, and questionnaires assessing resilience, social support, and psychosocial functioning.

RESULTS

Lower unit support and postdeployment social support were associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms, and decreased resilience and psychosocial functioning. Path analyses suggested that resilience fully mediated the association between unit support and PTSD and depressive symptoms, and that postdeployment social support partially mediated the association between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning.

LIMITATIONS

Generalizability of results is limited by the relatively low response rate and predominantly older and reserve/National Guard sample.

CONCLUSIONS

These results suggest that interventions designed to bolster unit support, resilience, and postdeployment support may help protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and improve psychosocial functioning in veterans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT 06510, USA. robert.pietrzak@yale.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19739480

Citation

Pietrzak, Robert H., et al. "Psychosocial Buffers of Traumatic Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Psychosocial Difficulties in Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the Role of Resilience, Unit Support, and Postdeployment Social Support." Journal of Special Operations Medicine : a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals, vol. 9, no. 3, 2009, pp. 74-8.
Pietrzak RH, Johnson DC, Goldstein MB, et al. Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support. J Spec Oper Med. 2009;9(3):74-8.
Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., Rivers, A. J., Morgan, C. A., & Southwick, S. M. (2009). Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support. Journal of Special Operations Medicine : a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals, 9(3), 74-8.
Pietrzak RH, et al. Psychosocial Buffers of Traumatic Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Psychosocial Difficulties in Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the Role of Resilience, Unit Support, and Postdeployment Social Support. J Spec Oper Med. 2009;9(3):74-8. PubMed PMID: 19739480.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: the role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support. AU - Pietrzak,Robert H, AU - Johnson,Douglas C, AU - Goldstein,Marc B, AU - Malley,James C, AU - Rivers,Alison J, AU - Morgan,Charles A, AU - Southwick,Steven M, PY - 2009/9/11/entrez PY - 2009/9/11/pubmed PY - 2010/10/1/medline SP - 74 EP - 8 JF - Journal of special operations medicine : a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals JO - J Spec Oper Med VL - 9 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Little research has examined the role of protective factors such as psychological resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support in buffering against PTSD and depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 272 OEF/OIF veterans completed a survey containing PTSD and depression screening measures, and questionnaires assessing resilience, social support, and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS: Lower unit support and postdeployment social support were associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms, and decreased resilience and psychosocial functioning. Path analyses suggested that resilience fully mediated the association between unit support and PTSD and depressive symptoms, and that postdeployment social support partially mediated the association between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability of results is limited by the relatively low response rate and predominantly older and reserve/National Guard sample. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that interventions designed to bolster unit support, resilience, and postdeployment support may help protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and improve psychosocial functioning in veterans. SN - 1553-9768 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19739480/Psychosocial_buffers_of_traumatic_stress_depressive_symptoms_and_psychosocial_difficulties_in_veterans_of_Operations_Enduring_Freedom_and_Iraqi_Freedom:_the_role_of_resilience_unit_support_and_postdeployment_social_support_ L2 - http://www.jsomonline.org/Publications/2009374Pietrzak.pdf DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -