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Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study.
Chemistry. 2009 Oct 12; 15(40):10570-84.C

Abstract

Aldolases are enzymes that catalyze stereospecific aldol reactions in a reversible manner. Naturally occurring aldolases include class I aldolases, which catalyze aldol reactions via enamine intermediates, and class II aldolases, in which Zn(2+) enolates of substrates react with acceptor aldehydes. In this work, Zn(2+) complexes of L-prolyl-pendant[15]aneN(5) (ZnL(3)), L-prolyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(4)), and L-valyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(5)) were designed and synthesized for use as chiral catalysts for enantioselective aldol reactions. The complexation constants for L(3) to L(5) with Zn(2+) [logK(s)(ZnL)] were determined to be 14.1 (for ZnL(3)), 7.6 (for ZnL(4)), and 9.6 (for ZnL(5)), indicating that ZnL(3) is more stable than ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). The deprotonation constants of Zn(2+)-bound water [pK(a)(ZnL) values] for ZnL(3), ZnL(4), and ZnL(5) were calculated to be 9.2 (for ZnL(3)), 8.2 (for ZnL(4)), and 8.6 (for ZnL(5)), suggesting that the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(3) is a less acidic Lewis acid than in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). These values also indicated that the amino groups on the side chains weakly coordinate to Zn(2+). We carried out aldol reactions between acetone and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and other aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of the chiral Zn(2+) complexes in acetone/H(2)O at 25 and 37 degrees C. Whereas ZnL(3) yielded the aldol product in 43% yield and 1% ee (R), ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) afforded good chemical yields and high enantioselectivities of up to 89% ee (R). UV titrations of proline and ZnL(4) with acetylacetone (acac) in DMSO/H(2)O (1:2) indicate that ZnL(4) facilitates the formation of the ZnL(4)(acac)(-) complex (K(app)=2.1x10(2) M(-1)), whereas L-proline forms a Schiff base with acac with a very small equilibrium constant. These results suggest that the amino acid components and the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) function in a cooperative manner to generate the Zn(2+)-enolate of acetone, thus permitting efficient enantioselective C-C bond formation with aldehydes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19746465

Citation

Itoh, Susumu, et al. "Chiral Catalysts Dually Functionalized With Amino Acid and Zn2+ Complex Components for Enantioselective Direct Aldol Reactions Inspired By Natural Aldolases: Design, Synthesis, Complexation Properties, Catalytic Activities, and Mechanistic Study." Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany), vol. 15, no. 40, 2009, pp. 10570-84.
Itoh S, Kitamura M, Yamada Y, et al. Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study. Chemistry. 2009;15(40):10570-84.
Itoh, S., Kitamura, M., Yamada, Y., & Aoki, S. (2009). Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study. Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany), 15(40), 10570-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200900733
Itoh S, et al. Chiral Catalysts Dually Functionalized With Amino Acid and Zn2+ Complex Components for Enantioselective Direct Aldol Reactions Inspired By Natural Aldolases: Design, Synthesis, Complexation Properties, Catalytic Activities, and Mechanistic Study. Chemistry. 2009 Oct 12;15(40):10570-84. PubMed PMID: 19746465.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chiral catalysts dually functionalized with amino acid and Zn2+ complex components for enantioselective direct aldol reactions inspired by natural aldolases: design, synthesis, complexation properties, catalytic activities, and mechanistic study. AU - Itoh,Susumu, AU - Kitamura,Masanori, AU - Yamada,Yasuyuki, AU - Aoki,Shin, PY - 2009/9/12/entrez PY - 2009/9/12/pubmed PY - 2009/12/16/medline SP - 10570 EP - 84 JF - Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) JO - Chemistry VL - 15 IS - 40 N2 - Aldolases are enzymes that catalyze stereospecific aldol reactions in a reversible manner. Naturally occurring aldolases include class I aldolases, which catalyze aldol reactions via enamine intermediates, and class II aldolases, in which Zn(2+) enolates of substrates react with acceptor aldehydes. In this work, Zn(2+) complexes of L-prolyl-pendant[15]aneN(5) (ZnL(3)), L-prolyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(4)), and L-valyl-pendant[12]aneN(4) (ZnL(5)) were designed and synthesized for use as chiral catalysts for enantioselective aldol reactions. The complexation constants for L(3) to L(5) with Zn(2+) [logK(s)(ZnL)] were determined to be 14.1 (for ZnL(3)), 7.6 (for ZnL(4)), and 9.6 (for ZnL(5)), indicating that ZnL(3) is more stable than ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). The deprotonation constants of Zn(2+)-bound water [pK(a)(ZnL) values] for ZnL(3), ZnL(4), and ZnL(5) were calculated to be 9.2 (for ZnL(3)), 8.2 (for ZnL(4)), and 8.6 (for ZnL(5)), suggesting that the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(3) is a less acidic Lewis acid than in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5). These values also indicated that the amino groups on the side chains weakly coordinate to Zn(2+). We carried out aldol reactions between acetone and 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and other aldehydes in the presence of catalytic amounts of the chiral Zn(2+) complexes in acetone/H(2)O at 25 and 37 degrees C. Whereas ZnL(3) yielded the aldol product in 43% yield and 1% ee (R), ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) afforded good chemical yields and high enantioselectivities of up to 89% ee (R). UV titrations of proline and ZnL(4) with acetylacetone (acac) in DMSO/H(2)O (1:2) indicate that ZnL(4) facilitates the formation of the ZnL(4)(acac)(-) complex (K(app)=2.1x10(2) M(-1)), whereas L-proline forms a Schiff base with acac with a very small equilibrium constant. These results suggest that the amino acid components and the Zn(2+) ions in ZnL(4) and ZnL(5) function in a cooperative manner to generate the Zn(2+)-enolate of acetone, thus permitting efficient enantioselective C-C bond formation with aldehydes. SN - 1521-3765 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19746465/Chiral_catalysts_dually_functionalized_with_amino_acid_and_Zn2+_complex_components_for_enantioselective_direct_aldol_reactions_inspired_by_natural_aldolases:_design_synthesis_complexation_properties_catalytic_activities_and_mechanistic_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.200900733 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -