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Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children.
Tob Control. 2009 Dec; 18(6):491-5.TC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the prevalence of smoke-free homes in England between 1996 and 2007 and their impact on children's exposure to second-hand smoke via a series of annual cross-sectional surveys: the Health Survey for England. These comprised nationally representative samples of non-smoking children aged 4-15 (n = 13 365) and their parents interviewed in the home. Main outcome measures were cotinine measured in saliva, smoke-free homes defined by "no" response to "Does anyone smoke inside this house/flat on most days?", self-reported smoking status of parents and self-reported and cotinine validated smoking status in children.

RESULTS

The proportion of homes where one parent was a smoker that were smoke free increased from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2007, and where both parents were smokers from 6% to 21%. The overwhelming majority of homes with non-smoking parents were smoke free (95% in 1996; 99% in 2007). For children with non-smoking parents and living in a smoke-free home the geometric mean cotinine across all years was 0.22 ng/ml. For children with one smoking parent geometric mean cotinine levels were 0.37 ng/ml when the home was smoke free and 1.67 ng/ml when there was smoking in the home; and for those with two smoking parents, 0.71 ng/ml and 2.46 ng/ml. There were strong trends across years for declines in cotinine concentrations in children in smoke-free homes for the children of smokers and non-smokers.

CONCLUSIONS

There has been a marked secular trend towards smoke-free homes, even when parents themselves are smokers. Living in a smoke-free home offers children a considerable, but not complete, degree of protection against exposure to parental smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University College London, London, UK. martin.jarvis@ucl.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19748885

Citation

Jarvis, M J., et al. "Smoke-free Homes in England: Prevalence, Trends and Validation By Cotinine in Children." Tobacco Control, vol. 18, no. 6, 2009, pp. 491-5.
Jarvis MJ, Mindell J, Gilmore A, et al. Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. Tob Control. 2009;18(6):491-5.
Jarvis, M. J., Mindell, J., Gilmore, A., Feyerabend, C., & West, R. (2009). Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. Tobacco Control, 18(6), 491-5. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2009.031328
Jarvis MJ, et al. Smoke-free Homes in England: Prevalence, Trends and Validation By Cotinine in Children. Tob Control. 2009;18(6):491-5. PubMed PMID: 19748885.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. AU - Jarvis,M J, AU - Mindell,J, AU - Gilmore,A, AU - Feyerabend,C, AU - West,R, Y1 - 2009/09/10/ PY - 2009/9/15/entrez PY - 2009/9/15/pubmed PY - 2010/9/11/medline SP - 491 EP - 5 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 18 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of smoke-free homes in England between 1996 and 2007 and their impact on children's exposure to second-hand smoke via a series of annual cross-sectional surveys: the Health Survey for England. These comprised nationally representative samples of non-smoking children aged 4-15 (n = 13 365) and their parents interviewed in the home. Main outcome measures were cotinine measured in saliva, smoke-free homes defined by "no" response to "Does anyone smoke inside this house/flat on most days?", self-reported smoking status of parents and self-reported and cotinine validated smoking status in children. RESULTS: The proportion of homes where one parent was a smoker that were smoke free increased from 21% in 1996 to 37% in 2007, and where both parents were smokers from 6% to 21%. The overwhelming majority of homes with non-smoking parents were smoke free (95% in 1996; 99% in 2007). For children with non-smoking parents and living in a smoke-free home the geometric mean cotinine across all years was 0.22 ng/ml. For children with one smoking parent geometric mean cotinine levels were 0.37 ng/ml when the home was smoke free and 1.67 ng/ml when there was smoking in the home; and for those with two smoking parents, 0.71 ng/ml and 2.46 ng/ml. There were strong trends across years for declines in cotinine concentrations in children in smoke-free homes for the children of smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a marked secular trend towards smoke-free homes, even when parents themselves are smokers. Living in a smoke-free home offers children a considerable, but not complete, degree of protection against exposure to parental smoking. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19748885/Smoke_free_homes_in_England:_prevalence_trends_and_validation_by_cotinine_in_children_ L2 - http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19748885 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -