Novel method for generating structure-based pharmacophores using energetic analysis.J Chem Inf Model. 2009 Oct; 49(10):2356-68.JC
We describe a novel method to develop energetically optimized, structure-based pharmacophores for use in rapid in silico screening. The method combines pharmacophore perception and database screening with protein-ligand energetic terms computed by the Glide XP scoring function to rank the importance of pharmacophore features. We derive energy-optimized pharmacophore hypotheses for 30 pharmaceutically relevant crystal structures and screen a database to assess the enrichment of active compounds. The method is compared to three other approaches: (1) pharmacophore hypotheses derived from a systematic assessment of receptor-ligand contacts, (2) Glide SP docking, and (3) 2D ligand fingerprint similarity. The method developed here shows better enrichments than the other three methods and yields a greater diversity of actives than the contact-based pharmacophores or the 2D ligand similarity. Docking produces the most cases (28/30) with enrichments greater than 10.0 in the top 1% of the database and on average produces the greatest diversity of active molecules. The combination of energy terms from a structure-based analysis with the speed of a ligand-based pharmacophore search results in a method that leverages the strengths of both approaches to produce high enrichments with a good diversity of active molecules.