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Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: a 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans.
J Affect Disord. 2010 Jun; 123(1-3):249-57.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

This study aims to: (a) follow-up the prevalence of comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression; (b) determine the chronological relations between these disorder; and (c) examine whether PTSD comorbid with anxiety and depression is implicated in more impaired functioning than PTSD by itself.

METHODS

664 war veterans were followed up 1, 2, and 20 years after their participation in the 1982 Lebanon War. Comorbidity was assessed by self reported PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms; impairment in psychosocial functioning was assessed by self reported problems in occupational, social, sexual and family functioning.

RESULTS

At each point of assessment, rates of triple comorbidity (PTSD, anxiety and depression; 26.7-30.1%) were higher than rates of PTSD, either by itself (9.3-11.1%), or comorbid with depression (1.2-4.5%) or anxiety (2.9-4.5%). PTSD predicted depression, anxiety, and comorbid disorders, but not vice versa. At time 1 and 2 assessments, triple comorbidity was associated with more impaired functioning than PTSD alone. In addition, triple comorbidity at Time 2 was associated with more impaired functioning than double comorbidity.

LIMITATIONS

Since measurements did not cover the entire span of 20 years since the war, the entire spectrum of changes could not be monitored.

CONCLUSIONS

Almost one half of war veterans would endorse a lifetime triple comorbidity, and those who do, are likely to have more impaired functioning. The findings support the perspective that views PTSD as the dominant disorder following traumatic events, which impels the development of comorbid anxiety and depression.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. karnig@post.tau.ac.ilNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19765828

Citation

Ginzburg, Karni, et al. "Comorbidity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depression: a 20-year Longitudinal Study of War Veterans." Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 123, no. 1-3, 2010, pp. 249-57.
Ginzburg K, Ein-Dor T, Solomon Z. Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: a 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans. J Affect Disord. 2010;123(1-3):249-57.
Ginzburg, K., Ein-Dor, T., & Solomon, Z. (2010). Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: a 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1-3), 249-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.08.006
Ginzburg K, Ein-Dor T, Solomon Z. Comorbidity of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety and Depression: a 20-year Longitudinal Study of War Veterans. J Affect Disord. 2010;123(1-3):249-57. PubMed PMID: 19765828.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression: a 20-year longitudinal study of war veterans. AU - Ginzburg,Karni, AU - Ein-Dor,Tsachi, AU - Solomon,Zahava, Y1 - 2009/09/18/ PY - 2009/01/20/received PY - 2009/08/11/revised PY - 2009/08/11/accepted PY - 2009/9/22/entrez PY - 2009/9/22/pubmed PY - 2010/7/27/medline SP - 249 EP - 57 JF - Journal of affective disorders JO - J Affect Disord VL - 123 IS - 1-3 N2 - BACKGROUND: This study aims to: (a) follow-up the prevalence of comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression; (b) determine the chronological relations between these disorder; and (c) examine whether PTSD comorbid with anxiety and depression is implicated in more impaired functioning than PTSD by itself. METHODS: 664 war veterans were followed up 1, 2, and 20 years after their participation in the 1982 Lebanon War. Comorbidity was assessed by self reported PTSD, anxiety, and depression symptoms; impairment in psychosocial functioning was assessed by self reported problems in occupational, social, sexual and family functioning. RESULTS: At each point of assessment, rates of triple comorbidity (PTSD, anxiety and depression; 26.7-30.1%) were higher than rates of PTSD, either by itself (9.3-11.1%), or comorbid with depression (1.2-4.5%) or anxiety (2.9-4.5%). PTSD predicted depression, anxiety, and comorbid disorders, but not vice versa. At time 1 and 2 assessments, triple comorbidity was associated with more impaired functioning than PTSD alone. In addition, triple comorbidity at Time 2 was associated with more impaired functioning than double comorbidity. LIMITATIONS: Since measurements did not cover the entire span of 20 years since the war, the entire spectrum of changes could not be monitored. CONCLUSIONS: Almost one half of war veterans would endorse a lifetime triple comorbidity, and those who do, are likely to have more impaired functioning. The findings support the perspective that views PTSD as the dominant disorder following traumatic events, which impels the development of comorbid anxiety and depression. SN - 1573-2517 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19765828/Comorbidity_of_posttraumatic_stress_disorder_anxiety_and_depression:_a_20_year_longitudinal_study_of_war_veterans_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -