NF-kappaB mediates MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death in neuroblastoma cells SH-EP1 through JNK and c-Jun/AP-1.Neurochem Int. 2010 Jan; 56(1):128-34.NI
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra with unknown etiology. Neuropathology seen in the brains of PD patients can be closely mimicked by MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. In this study, we used an S-type human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-EP1) as a model to investigate the involvement of NF-kappaB and JNK pathways in MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity. We show that NF-kappaB was activated by MPP(+) as evidenced by NF-kappaB p65 nuclear translocation, the increased DNA binding activity and a rapid phosphorylation of NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaBalpha). NF-kappaB partially mediated the neurotoxicity of MPP(+), as suggested by the reduction of MPP(+)-induced cell death by both a specific IkappaB kinase (IKK) inhibitor and a dominant negative form of IkappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha-M). Besides NF-kappaB, JNK and c-Jun/AP-1 were also activated upon MPP(+) stimulation. Inhibition of JNK activation with a specific JNK inhibitor partially reduced the MPP(+)-mediated cell death. Similarly, inhibition of c-Jun/AP-1 activation, either by a dominant negative c-Jun or c-Jun/AP-1 inhibitor, significantly attenuated MPP(+)-mediated cell death. These results suggest that both JNK and c-Jun/AP-1 activation are pro-apoptotic. Furthermore, we provide clear evidence for the existence of a crosstalk between the NF-kappaB and JNK signaling as MPP(+)-induced activation of JNK and c-Jun/AP-1 was strongly down-regulated in IkappaBalpha-M cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in SH-EP1 cells MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity is partially mediated by NF-kappaB which in turn acts on the activation of JNK and c-Jun/AP-1. These results may point to a combined inhibition of NF-kappaB and JNK as a new approach to PD therapy.