Pathogenesis of familial Parkinson's disease: new insights based on monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease.J Neurochem. 2009 Dec; 111(5):1075-93.JN
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common movement disorders caused by the loss of dopaminergic neuronal cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal degeneration in PD remain unknown; however, it is now clear that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Approximately, 5% of patients with clinical features of PD have clear familial etiology, which show a classical recessive or dominant Mendelian mode of inheritance. Over the decade, more than 15 loci and 11 causative genes have been identified so far and many studies shed light on their implication in not only monogenic but also sporadic form of PD. Recent studies revealed that PD-associated genes play important roles in cellular functions, such as mitochondrial functions, ubiquitin-proteasomal system, autophagy-lysosomal pathway and membrane trafficking. Furthermore, the proteins encoded by PD-associated genes can interact with each other and such gene products may share a common pathway that leads to nigral degeneration. However, their precise roles in the disease and their normal functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we review recent progress in knowledge about the genes associated with familial PD.