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(Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent.

Abstract

Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut Insel Riems, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

    ,

    Source

    Veterinary microbiology 140:3-4 2010 Jan 27 pg 237-45

    MeSH

    Animals
    Birds
    Disease Outbreaks
    Humans
    Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
    Influenza in Birds
    Influenza, Human
    Mammals
    Poultry
    Zoonoses

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19782482

    Citation

    Kalthoff, Donata, et al. "(Highly Pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a Zoonotic Agent." Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 140, no. 3-4, 2010, pp. 237-45.
    Kalthoff D, Globig A, Beer M. (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140(3-4):237-45.
    Kalthoff, D., Globig, A., & Beer, M. (2010). (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent. Veterinary Microbiology, 140(3-4), pp. 237-45. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.08.022.
    Kalthoff D, Globig A, Beer M. (Highly Pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a Zoonotic Agent. Vet Microbiol. 2010 Jan 27;140(3-4):237-45. PubMed PMID: 19782482.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - (Highly pathogenic) avian influenza as a zoonotic agent. AU - Kalthoff,Donata, AU - Globig,Anja, AU - Beer,Martin, Y1 - 2009/08/26/ PY - 2009/07/03/received PY - 2009/07/03/revised PY - 2009/08/21/accepted PY - 2009/9/29/entrez PY - 2009/9/29/pubmed PY - 2010/3/31/medline SP - 237 EP - 45 JF - Veterinary microbiology JO - Vet. Microbiol. VL - 140 IS - 3-4 N2 - Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence by mutation after transmission and adaptation to susceptible gallinaceous poultry. Those so-called highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) then cause mass die-offs in susceptible birds and lead to tremendous economical losses when poultry is affected. Besides a number of avian influenza virus subtypes that have sporadically infected mammals, the HPAIV H5N1 Asia shows strong zoonotic characteristics and it was transmitted from birds to different mammalian species including humans. Theoretically, pandemic viruses might derive directly from avian influenza viruses or arise after genetic reassortment between viruses of avian and mammalian origin. So far, HPAIV H5N1 already meets two conditions for a pandemic virus: as a new subtype it has been hitherto unseen in the human population and it has infected at least 438 people, and caused severe illness and high lethality in 262 humans to date (August 2009). The acquisition of efficient human-to-human transmission would complete the emergence of a new pandemic virus. Therefore, fighting H5N1 at its source is the prerequisite to reduce pandemic risks posed by this virus. Other influenza viruses regarded as pandemic candidates derive from subtypes H2, H7, and H9 all of which have infected humans in the past. Here, we will give a comprehensive overview on avian influenza viruses in concern to their zoonotic potential. SN - 1873-2542 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19782482/_Highly_pathogenic__avian_influenza_as_a_zoonotic_agent_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-1135(09)00394-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -