Phylogenetic relationships, subdivision, and biogeography of the cyprinid tribe Labeonini (sensu) (Teleostei: Cypriniformes), with comments on the implications of lips and associated structures in the labeonin classification.Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010 Jan; 54(1):254-65.MP
The Labeonini (sensu Rainboth, 1991) is a tribe of the subfamily Cyprininae, the largest subfamily of Cypriniformes. With around 400 species in 34 genera, this tribe is widely distributed in the freshwaters of tropical Africa and Asia. Most species are adapted to fast-flowing streams and rivers, and exhibit unique morphological modifications associated with their lips and other structures around the mouth. The monophyly of this tribe has been tested and generally accepted in previous morphological and molecular studies. The major objectives of this study were to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Labeonini, test its monophyly and explore the taxonomic subdivisions, intrarelationships and biogeography of the group. The value of the morphological characters associated with the lips and other associated structures in the taxonomic classification of labeonins was also discussed. Nucleotide sequences (3867 bp) of four unlinked nuclear loci were obtained from 51 species in 18 Labeonini genera from throughout the range of the tribe. Maximum parsimony, partitioned maximum likelihood and partitioned Bayesian analyses were used for phylogenetic inference from combined and separate gene data sets. Based on our results, the monophyly of Labeonini was well supported. Two major clades could be recovered within the tribe. Three subclades could further be recognized from the first clade. These clades/subclades are not consistent with groupings of any of previous workers using either morphological or molecular characters for phylogenetic inference. Only five currently recognized genera in this analysis are monophyletic. The similarity between some lips and associated structures (e.g. suctorial discs) of labeonins may due to convergence or parallelism instead of common ancestry. Labeonins of Southeast Asia, India and China are closely related to each other; the multiple clades of African taxa do not form a single monophyletic group, indicating multiple, independent dispersal events of labeonins into Africa from Asia.