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Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Nov-Dec; 28(6):w1066-78.HA

Abstract

When the novel strain of A/H1N1 influenza first appeared in spring 2009, closing schools was initially a common and often challenging strategy implemented in many communities. Arguments for and against closing schools are likely to arise anew if influenza spikes in the fall of 2009. Policymakers and community officials considering this and other nonpharmaceutical responses can learn from the experiences of ninety-one years ago, during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic that killed thousands of Americans. Analysis of the school closure policies of forty-three U.S. cities during that pandemic shows that smooth implementation was associated with clear lines of authority among agencies and with transparent communication between health officials and the public.

Authors+Show Affiliations

History of Medicine at University of Michigan Medical School in Ann Arbor, USA. amstern@umich.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19797251

Citation

Stern, Alexandra M., et al. "Closing the Schools: Lessons From the 1918-19 U.S. Influenza Pandemic." Health Affairs (Project Hope), vol. 28, no. 6, 2009, pp. w1066-78.
Stern AM, Cetron MS, Markel H. Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009;28(6):w1066-78.
Stern, A. M., Cetron, M. S., & Markel, H. (2009). Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 28(6), w1066-78. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.28.6.w1066
Stern AM, Cetron MS, Markel H. Closing the Schools: Lessons From the 1918-19 U.S. Influenza Pandemic. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6):w1066-78. PubMed PMID: 19797251.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Closing the schools: lessons from the 1918-19 U.S. influenza pandemic. AU - Stern,Alexandra M, AU - Cetron,Martin S, AU - Markel,Howard, Y1 - 2009/09/28/ PY - 2009/10/3/entrez PY - 2009/10/3/pubmed PY - 2011/4/5/medline SP - w1066 EP - 78 JF - Health affairs (Project Hope) JO - Health Aff (Millwood) VL - 28 IS - 6 N2 - When the novel strain of A/H1N1 influenza first appeared in spring 2009, closing schools was initially a common and often challenging strategy implemented in many communities. Arguments for and against closing schools are likely to arise anew if influenza spikes in the fall of 2009. Policymakers and community officials considering this and other nonpharmaceutical responses can learn from the experiences of ninety-one years ago, during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic that killed thousands of Americans. Analysis of the school closure policies of forty-three U.S. cities during that pandemic shows that smooth implementation was associated with clear lines of authority among agencies and with transparent communication between health officials and the public. SN - 1544-5208 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19797251/Closing_the_schools:_lessons_from_the_1918_19_U_S__influenza_pandemic_ L2 - https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.28.6.w1066?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -