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Enzymatic-nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense systems response and immunohistochemical detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and apoptosis as biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity.
J Neurosci Res. 2010 Mar; 88(4):905-16.JN

Abstract

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity leads to the formation of quinone metabolities and hydroxyl radicals and then to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated the effect of a single dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on the enzymatic and nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense system in different areas of rat brain in the early hours (<6 hr) of the administration itself, and we identified the morphological expressions of neurotoxicity induced by MDMA on the vulnerable brain areas in the first 24 hr. The acute administration of MDMA produces a decrease of reduced and oxidized glutathione ratio, and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced after 3 hr and after 6 hr in frontal cortex. Ascorbic acid levels strongly increased in striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex after 3 and 6 hr. High levels of malonaldehyde with respect to control were measured in striatum after 3 and 6 hr and in hippocampus and frontal cortex after 6 hr. An immunohistochemical investigation on the frontal, thalamic, hypothalamic, and striatal areas was performed. A strong positive reaction to the antivesicular monoamine transporter 2 was observed in the frontal section, in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cortical positivity, located in the most superficial layer was revealed only for heat shock protein 70 after 24 hr.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Forensic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19798748

Citation

Riezzo, Irene, et al. "Enzymatic-nonenzymatic Cellular Antioxidant Defense Systems Response and Immunohistochemical Detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and Apoptosis as Biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) Neurotoxicity." Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 88, no. 4, 2010, pp. 905-16.
Riezzo I, Cerretani D, Fiore C, et al. Enzymatic-nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense systems response and immunohistochemical detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and apoptosis as biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88(4):905-16.
Riezzo, I., Cerretani, D., Fiore, C., Bello, S., Centini, F., D'Errico, S., Fiaschi, A. I., Giorgi, G., Neri, M., Pomara, C., Turillazzi, E., & Fineschi, V. (2010). Enzymatic-nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense systems response and immunohistochemical detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and apoptosis as biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 88(4), 905-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22245
Riezzo I, et al. Enzymatic-nonenzymatic Cellular Antioxidant Defense Systems Response and Immunohistochemical Detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and Apoptosis as Biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) Neurotoxicity. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88(4):905-16. PubMed PMID: 19798748.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Enzymatic-nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense systems response and immunohistochemical detection of MDMA, VMAT2, HSP70, and apoptosis as biomarkers for MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity. AU - Riezzo,Irene, AU - Cerretani,Daniela, AU - Fiore,Carmela, AU - Bello,Stefania, AU - Centini,Fabio, AU - D'Errico,Stefano, AU - Fiaschi,Anna Ida, AU - Giorgi,Giorgio, AU - Neri,Margherita, AU - Pomara,Cristoforo, AU - Turillazzi,Emanuela, AU - Fineschi,Vittorio, PY - 2009/10/3/entrez PY - 2009/10/3/pubmed PY - 2010/3/26/medline SP - 905 EP - 16 JF - Journal of neuroscience research JO - J. Neurosci. Res. VL - 88 IS - 4 N2 - 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity leads to the formation of quinone metabolities and hydroxyl radicals and then to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We evaluated the effect of a single dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg, i.p.) on the enzymatic and nonenzymatic cellular antioxidant defense system in different areas of rat brain in the early hours (<6 hr) of the administration itself, and we identified the morphological expressions of neurotoxicity induced by MDMA on the vulnerable brain areas in the first 24 hr. The acute administration of MDMA produces a decrease of reduced and oxidized glutathione ratio, and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced after 3 hr and after 6 hr in frontal cortex. Ascorbic acid levels strongly increased in striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex after 3 and 6 hr. High levels of malonaldehyde with respect to control were measured in striatum after 3 and 6 hr and in hippocampus and frontal cortex after 6 hr. An immunohistochemical investigation on the frontal, thalamic, hypothalamic, and striatal areas was performed. A strong positive reaction to the antivesicular monoamine transporter 2 was observed in the frontal section, in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cortical positivity, located in the most superficial layer was revealed only for heat shock protein 70 after 24 hr. SN - 1097-4547 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19798748/Enzymatic_nonenzymatic_cellular_antioxidant_defense_systems_response_and_immunohistochemical_detection_of_MDMA_VMAT2_HSP70_and_apoptosis_as_biomarkers_for_MDMA__Ecstasy__neurotoxicity_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22245 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -