The identification of apolipoprotein genes in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) and their expression following perfluorooctanoic acid exposure.Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan; 151(1):152-9.CB
Apolipoproteins play important roles in lipid transport and uptake in vertebrates, and they are associated with pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. However, the diverse apolipoproteins in individual fish species have not been extensively characterized. Partial cDNA sequences encoding ApoA-IV, ApoE, ApoM, ApoL, and ApoO, and full-length cDNA sequences encoding ApoA-I were cloned from rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). Sequence analysis showed that these genes, as well as fragments of other known apolipoprotein genes (ApoC-I, ApoC-II, ApoB) of rare minnow had a high similarity (91-96%) to their orthologues in the spotted barbel Hemibarbus mylodon (Teleostei:Cypriniformes). The expression of these nine genes and their possible upstream genes, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and HNF4alpha, were investigated in rare minnow after subacute exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 14days. Results showed that the expression of mRNA for ApoA-I, ApoC-II, and ApoM was significantly downregulated in all PFOA-treated animals. Only fish receiving the highest dose of PFOA showed downregulation of the expression of ApoA-IV and ApoC-I, while fish treated with 10mg PFOA/L showed upregulation of expression of ApoE. Expression of ApoB, ApoO, and ApoL was unchanged between control and treated groups. In addition, the expression of PPARalpha was increased in all dosed fish, while the mRNAs for PPARgamma and HNF4alpha were significantly altered with 30 and 3mg PFOA/L doses, respectively. Therefore, subacute exposure to PFOA resulted in alteration of expression of apolipoproteins and related genes. These changes in gene expression may further influence lipid metabolism or other physiological functions in fish.