The allergen specificity of the late asthmatic reaction.Allergy. 2010 Mar; 65(3):355-8.A
Allergen inhalation challenge in asthma may induce both early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic reactions. The EAR is IgE and mast cell dependent. The mechanism of the LAR is less well defined and we have hypothesized may be allergen dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergen specificity of the LAR to allergen inhalation in asthma.
In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design six asthmatic volunteers with dual sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and grass pollen (GP) allergen underwent inhalation allergen challenge with these separate allergens on two occasions separated by 14 days. Lung function changes were followed for 8-h postchallenge. Bronchial reactivity (histamine PC(20)) and airway inflammation, assessed by induced sputum differential cell count, were measured 24-h pre and postallergen challenge. The allergen inhalation challenges were matched to achieve the same magnitude of EAR.
Despite comparable group mean EAR percent falls in FEV(1) (25.8% following GP and 28.0% following HDM (P = 0.917), the LAR was statistically greater on the HDM challenge day (13.0%vs 22.8% [P = 0.046]) and was associated with a significant airway eosinophil recruitment (mean (SD) of 5.4 (4.8)% to 22.1 (18.2)% (P = 0.028) that was not evident on the GP allergen challenge day.
These findings identify the allergen specificity of the LAR and indicate that factors independent of IgE contribute to the LAR. Such findings have relevance both to the understanding of the allergen-induced airway responses in asthma and the need for homogeneity in inhaled-allergen challenge studies in asthma.