Evaluation of toluene exposure via drinking water on levels of regional brain biogenic monoamines and their metabolites in CD-1 mice.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1990 Oct; 20(2):175-84.EE
Toluene, a potentially neurotoxic substance, is found in trace amounts in groundwater. Adult male CD-1 mice were continuously fed drinking water ad libitum containing 0, 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter toluene. After a 28-day treatment, animals were tested for endogenous levels of the biogenic monoamines norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) and their respective metabolites. 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in six discrete brain regions. The maximum toluene-induced increases of biogenic amines and their metabolites generally occurred at a toluene concentration of 80 mg/liter. In the hypothalamus, a major NE-containing compartment, the concentrations of NE significantly increased by 51, 63, and 34% in groups dosed with 17, 80, and 405 mg/liter, respectively. Significant increases of NE were also observed in the medulla oblongata and midbrain. Concomitantly, concentrations of VMA increased in various brain regions. Concentrations of DA were significantly higher in the corpus striatum and hypothalamus. Alterations in levels of DA metabolites, DOPAC and HVA, were marginal. Toluene significantly increased concentrations of 5-HT in all dissected brain regions, except cerebellum, and increased the 5-HIAA levels in the hypothalamus, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.