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Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 06; 106(40):16925-9.PN

Abstract

Molecular oxygen (O(2)) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580-550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O(2) production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O(2) budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(2+) rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19805080

Citation

Johnston, D T., et al. "Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Modulated Proterozoic Oxygen and Sustained Earth's Middle Age." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 40, 2009, pp. 16925-9.
Johnston DT, Wolfe-Simon F, Pearson A, et al. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(40):16925-9.
Johnston, D. T., Wolfe-Simon, F., Pearson, A., & Knoll, A. H. (2009). Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(40), 16925-9. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0909248106
Johnston DT, et al. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Modulated Proterozoic Oxygen and Sustained Earth's Middle Age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 6;106(40):16925-9. PubMed PMID: 19805080.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age. AU - Johnston,D T, AU - Wolfe-Simon,F, AU - Pearson,A, AU - Knoll,A H, Y1 - 2009/09/28/ PY - 2009/10/7/entrez PY - 2009/10/7/pubmed PY - 2010/1/16/medline SP - 16925 EP - 9 JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America JO - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A VL - 106 IS - 40 N2 - Molecular oxygen (O(2)) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580-550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O(2) production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O(2) budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(2+) rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. SN - 1091-6490 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19805080/Anoxygenic_photosynthesis_modulated_Proterozoic_oxygen_and_sustained_Earth's_middle_age_ L2 - http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=19805080 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -