Protease-activated receptor 2-mediated protection of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009 Dec; 297(6):R1681-90.AJ
Activation of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) or the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in cardiac sensory afferents containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or substance P (SP) has been proposed to play a protective role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the interaction between PAR2 and TRPV1 is largely unknown. Using gene-targeted TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1(-/-)) or wild-type (WT) mice, we test the hypothesis that TRPV1 contributes to PAR2-mediated cardiac protection via increasing the release of CGRP and SP. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that TRPV1 coexpressed with PAR2, PKC-epsilon, or PKAc in cardiomyocytes, cardiac blood vessels, and perivascular nerves in WT but not TRPV1(-/-) hearts. WT or TRPV1(-/-) hearts were Langendorff perfused with the selective PAR2 agonist, SLIGRL, in the presence or absence of various antagonists, followed by 35 min of global ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion (I/R). The recovery rate of coronary flow, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and left ventricular developed pressure were evaluated after I/R. SLIGRL improved the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and reduced the infarct size in both WT and TRPV1(-/-) hearts (P < 0.05). The protection of SLIGRL was significantly surpassed for WT compared with TRPV1(-/-) hearts (P < 0.05). CGRP(8-37), a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, RP67580, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, PKC-epsilon V1-2, a selective PKC-epsilon inhibitor, or H-89, a selective PKA inhibitor, abolished SLIGRL protection by inhibiting the recovery of the rate of coronary flow, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, and left ventricular developed pressure, and increasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in WT but not TRPV1(-/-) hearts. Radioimmunoassay showed that SLIGRL increased the release of CGRP and SP in WT but not TRPV1(-/-) hearts (P < 0.05), which were prevented by PKC-epsilon V1-2 and H-89. Thus our data show that PAR2 activation improves cardiac recovery after I/R injury in WT and TRPV1(-/-) hearts, with a greater effect in the former, suggesting that PAR2-mediated protection is TRPV1 dependent and independent, and that dysfunctional TRPV1 impairs PAR2 action. PAR2 activation of the PKC-epsilon or PKA pathway stimulates or sensitizes TRPV1 in WT hearts, leading to the release of CGRP and SP that contribute, at least in part, to PAR2-induced cardiac protection against I/R injury.