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Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers.
Respiration. 2010; 79(1):61-7.R

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with pulmonary inflammation, but the acute effects of smoking have been less well studied. Analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can provide noninvasive markers that might be indicative of inflammation.

OBJECTIVES

The aim of the study was to determine whether the pH , electrical conductivity and the levels of ammonium and interleukin 8 (IL-8) of EBC were altered in smokers and whether they changed after smoking a single cigarette.

METHODS

We included 19 healthy nonsmokers (controls), 29 asymptomatic smokers, 10 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (GOLD) stages II-III], and 10 patients with exacerbated COPD. In 13 smokers, EBC was also analyzed before and after smoking. EBC was obtained during 10 min tidal breathing with a cooled RTube. pH was determined after deaeration with argon.

RESULTS

Acute smoking did not alter the pH or ammonium and IL-8 levels, but raised conductivity. As in COPD patients, the pH was significantly decreased in chronic smokers with a history of at least 10 pack-years compared to controls.

CONCLUSIONS

EBC can be used to detect the acute and chronic effects of smoking. The increased conductivity of EBC after smoking suggests acute inflammatory effects. The reduced pH in chronic smokers shows cigarette-induced inflammation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Diseases, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Marburg, Germany. koczulla @ med.uni-marburg.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19816000

Citation

Koczulla, A-Rembert, et al. "Acute and Chronic Effects of Smoking On Inflammation Markers in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Current Smokers." Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases, vol. 79, no. 1, 2010, pp. 61-7.
Koczulla AR, Noeske S, Herr C, et al. Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers. Respiration. 2010;79(1):61-7.
Koczulla, A. R., Noeske, S., Herr, C., Jörres, R. A., Römmelt, H., Vogelmeier, C., & Bals, R. (2010). Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers. Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases, 79(1), 61-7. https://doi.org/10.1159/000245325
Koczulla AR, et al. Acute and Chronic Effects of Smoking On Inflammation Markers in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Current Smokers. Respiration. 2010;79(1):61-7. PubMed PMID: 19816000.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute and chronic effects of smoking on inflammation markers in exhaled breath condensate in current smokers. AU - Koczulla,A-Rembert, AU - Noeske,Sarah, AU - Herr,Christian, AU - Jörres,Rudolf A, AU - Römmelt,Horst, AU - Vogelmeier,Claus, AU - Bals,Robert, Y1 - 2009/10/06/ PY - 2009/02/19/received PY - 2009/07/27/accepted PY - 2009/10/10/entrez PY - 2009/10/10/pubmed PY - 2010/2/4/medline SP - 61 EP - 7 JF - Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases JO - Respiration VL - 79 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with pulmonary inflammation, but the acute effects of smoking have been less well studied. Analysis of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can provide noninvasive markers that might be indicative of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether the pH , electrical conductivity and the levels of ammonium and interleukin 8 (IL-8) of EBC were altered in smokers and whether they changed after smoking a single cigarette. METHODS: We included 19 healthy nonsmokers (controls), 29 asymptomatic smokers, 10 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (GOLD) stages II-III], and 10 patients with exacerbated COPD. In 13 smokers, EBC was also analyzed before and after smoking. EBC was obtained during 10 min tidal breathing with a cooled RTube. pH was determined after deaeration with argon. RESULTS: Acute smoking did not alter the pH or ammonium and IL-8 levels, but raised conductivity. As in COPD patients, the pH was significantly decreased in chronic smokers with a history of at least 10 pack-years compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: EBC can be used to detect the acute and chronic effects of smoking. The increased conductivity of EBC after smoking suggests acute inflammatory effects. The reduced pH in chronic smokers shows cigarette-induced inflammation. SN - 1423-0356 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19816000/Acute_and_chronic_effects_of_smoking_on_inflammation_markers_in_exhaled_breath_condensate_in_current_smokers_ L2 - https://www.karger.com?DOI=10.1159/000245325 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -