'Old' bones in young bodies: the tale of cystic fibrosis.Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2009; 16(6):407-14CO
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease within the white population and leads to premature respiratory failure. Approximately, 60 000 individuals are currently living with CF in North America and Europe, almost half of whom are adults.
Dozens of studies across the globe indicate that CF adults have low bone density and increased rates of fractures. This genesis of the problem appears to be in late childhood to adolescence.
Prevention and treatment of CF-related bone disease must address the myriad risk factors (decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins due to pancreatic insufficiency, altered sex hormone production, chronic lung infection with increased serum levels of proinflammatory, bone-active cytokines, malnutrition and low body weight, physical inactivity and glucocorticoid therapy) for poor bone health. This review will address the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of bone disease in CF. It will also discuss best practice guidelines for optimizing bone health in patients with CF.