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The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults.

Abstract

An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise relative to vaccination affected the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and fifty-six (76 men) healthy participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three intervention groups who exercised immediately, 6h or 48 h prior to administration of a standard trivalent influenza vaccine. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both the bicep curl and lateral raise movements at an intensity eliciting 85% of each participant's pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. Antigen-specific serum antibody titres were measured at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination as indicators of the humoral response. All three viral strains elicited strong antibody responses; however, eccentric exercise did not further augment any antibody responses compared to the control group. Cell-mediated immunity at 28 days post-vaccination was determined by measuring the IFN-gamma response to in vitro stimulation of the blood with whole vaccine. There were no differences in cell-mediated immunity among the groups. Although these null findings were unexpected, they are consistent with previous research showing that exercise-induced immunoenhancement was only observed when the control group had relatively poor responses. In conclusion, it is likely that the robust immune responses to the vaccine observed in this study may have limited any further immune enhancement by exercise.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Behavioural Medicine Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

    , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Brain, behavior, and immunity 24:2 2010 Feb pg 236-42

    MeSH

    Antibodies, Viral
    Creatine Kinase
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
    Exercise
    Extremities
    Female
    Hemagglutination Tests
    Humans
    Immunity
    Immunity, Cellular
    Immunity, Humoral
    Influenza Vaccines
    Interferon-gamma
    Interleukin-6
    Male
    Pain
    Physical Exertion
    Time Factors
    Vaccination
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19818846

    Citation

    Campbell, John P., et al. "The Effects of Vaccine Timing On the Efficacy of an Acute Eccentric Exercise Intervention On the Immune Response to an Influenza Vaccine in Young Adults." Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 24, no. 2, 2010, pp. 236-42.
    Campbell JP, Edwards KM, Ring C, et al. The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(2):236-42.
    Campbell, J. P., Edwards, K. M., Ring, C., Drayson, M. T., Bosch, J. A., Inskip, A., ... Burns, V. E. (2010). The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24(2), pp. 236-42. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.10.001.
    Campbell JP, et al. The Effects of Vaccine Timing On the Efficacy of an Acute Eccentric Exercise Intervention On the Immune Response to an Influenza Vaccine in Young Adults. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(2):236-42. PubMed PMID: 19818846.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of vaccine timing on the efficacy of an acute eccentric exercise intervention on the immune response to an influenza vaccine in young adults. AU - Campbell,John P, AU - Edwards,Kate M, AU - Ring,Christopher, AU - Drayson,Mark T, AU - Bosch,Jos A, AU - Inskip,Andrew, AU - Long,Joanna E, AU - Pulsford,Daniel, AU - Burns,Victoria E, Y1 - 2009/10/08/ PY - 2009/07/29/received PY - 2009/09/20/revised PY - 2009/10/01/accepted PY - 2009/10/13/entrez PY - 2009/10/13/pubmed PY - 2010/4/24/medline SP - 236 EP - 42 JF - Brain, behavior, and immunity JO - Brain Behav. Immun. VL - 24 IS - 2 N2 - An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise relative to vaccination affected the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and fifty-six (76 men) healthy participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three intervention groups who exercised immediately, 6h or 48 h prior to administration of a standard trivalent influenza vaccine. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both the bicep curl and lateral raise movements at an intensity eliciting 85% of each participant's pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. Antigen-specific serum antibody titres were measured at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination as indicators of the humoral response. All three viral strains elicited strong antibody responses; however, eccentric exercise did not further augment any antibody responses compared to the control group. Cell-mediated immunity at 28 days post-vaccination was determined by measuring the IFN-gamma response to in vitro stimulation of the blood with whole vaccine. There were no differences in cell-mediated immunity among the groups. Although these null findings were unexpected, they are consistent with previous research showing that exercise-induced immunoenhancement was only observed when the control group had relatively poor responses. In conclusion, it is likely that the robust immune responses to the vaccine observed in this study may have limited any further immune enhancement by exercise. SN - 1090-2139 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19818846/The_effects_of_vaccine_timing_on_the_efficacy_of_an_acute_eccentric_exercise_intervention_on_the_immune_response_to_an_influenza_vaccine_in_young_adults_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0889-1591(09)00465-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -