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Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ups J Med Sci. 2009; 114(4):214-20.UJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg).

AIMS

We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 +/- 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS

The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 microIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7-2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13-463.2).

CONCLUSIONS

Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Diabetic Clinic, B' Pediatric Department, University of Athens, P. & A. Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece. koskakl2@yahoo.grNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19824863

Citation

Kakleas, Kostas, et al. "Factors for Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus." Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 114, no. 4, 2009, pp. 214-20.
Kakleas K, Paschali E, Kefalas N, et al. Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ups J Med Sci. 2009;114(4):214-20.
Kakleas, K., Paschali, E., Kefalas, N., Fotinou, A., Kanariou, M., Karayianni, C., & Karavanaki, K. (2009). Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 114(4), 214-20. https://doi.org/10.3109/03009730903276381
Kakleas K, et al. Factors for Thyroid Autoimmunity in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Ups J Med Sci. 2009;114(4):214-20. PubMed PMID: 19824863.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Factors for thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. AU - Kakleas,Kostas, AU - Paschali,Evangelia, AU - Kefalas,Nikos, AU - Fotinou,Aspasia, AU - Kanariou,Maria, AU - Karayianni,Christina, AU - Karavanaki,Kyriaki, PY - 2009/10/15/entrez PY - 2009/10/15/pubmed PY - 2010/2/23/medline SP - 214 EP - 20 JF - Upsala journal of medical sciences JO - Ups. J. Med. Sci. VL - 114 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with an autoimmune reaction to thyroid antigens including thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin (anti-Tg). AIMS: We determined in children with T1DM the relationship of positive anti-thyroid antibodies to potential risk factors, including, age, gender, duration of diabetes, and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 144 children and adolescents with T1DM. Their age was 12.3 +/- 4.6 (mean +/- SD) years, and duration of diabetes was 4.6 +/- 3.8 years. Anti-thyroid antibodies were determined using a luminescence method and anti-GAD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of anti-thyroid antibodies among the children with T1DM in our study were: anti-TPO (17.4%), anti-Tg (11.1%), and of both anti-thyroid antibodies (10.4%). The presence of serum anti-thyroid antibodies was positively associated with age (16.6 years in those with positive tests versus 12.0 years in those with negative tests, P = 0.027), duration of diabetes (7.4 versus 4.3 years, P = 0.031), and serum TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) levels (4.8 versus 2.3 microIU/mL, P = 0.002). The presence of both anti-thyroid antibodies was associated with female sex (boys: 4/75 (5.3%), girls: 11/69 (15.9%), chi-square = 6.44, P = 0.04). Subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (SAIT) was present in 55.5% of the patients with thyroid antibody-positivity and was positively associated with age (16.6 versus 12.0 years, P = 0.001) and diabetes duration (7.6 versus 4.2 years, P = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the development of anti-thyroid antibodies was predicted by: 1) the presence of anti-GAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.92), 2) the presence of a second anti-thyroid antibody (OR 134.4, 95% CI 7.7-2350.3), and 3) older age (OR 22.9, 95% CI 1.13-463.2). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid autoimmunity was associated with female gender, increasing age, long diabetes duration, the persistence of anti-GAD, and with TSH elevation, indicating subclinical hypothyroidism. SN - 2000-1967 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19824863/Factors_for_thyroid_autoimmunity_in_children_and_adolescents_with_type_1_diabetes_mellitus_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/03009730903276381 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -