Mediterranean-style dietary pattern, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome traits, and incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 90(6):1608-14AJ
The benefit of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in mitigating metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has not been well investigated among nondiabetic Americans.
The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome.
The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. We examined the longitudinal association between MSDPS and metabolic syndrome traits (including homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting glucose, waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) among 2730 participants of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort without type 2 diabetes (baseline median age: 54 y; 55% women), who were followed from the fifth (baseline) to the seventh study examinations (mean follow-up time: 7 y), and metabolic syndrome incidence (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1918 participants free of the condition at baseline.
A higher MSDPS was associated with lower homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.02), waist circumference (P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.03), and triglycerides (P < 0.001) and higher HDL cholesterol (P = 0.02) after adjustment for the corresponding baseline values and for several confounding factors associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Participants in the highest quintile category of the MSDPS had a lower incidence of metabolic syndrome than those in the lowest quintile category (38.5% compared with 30.1%; P = 0.01).
Our study suggests that the consumption of a diet consistent with the principles of the Mediterranean-style diet may protect against metabolic syndrome in Americans.