Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009; 49 Suppl 1:39-48.AG

Abstract

The clock drawing test (CDT) is an easy to apply, well accepted and reliable test that is widely used to screen for visuo-constructional difficulties in the aged people. Yet, besides visual agnosia and constructional apraxia, executive control influences performances in this task. Execution modalities and rating schemes vary widely, as for the way stimuli are proposed, the time to which the clock is set, and the elements that are considered for scoring. The scoring system we have selected is called clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) contains 20 items in 3 areas: visuo-perceptual, attentional and numerical factors. Our aim is to know the meanings of the CDIS total and sub-areas score, investigating the relationships with specific neuropsychological tests, in elderly persons with moderate cognitive impairment. CDIS has been administered to 90 people, aged about 75 years, attending our rehabilitative day hospital or our memory clinic. A neuropsychological battery has been administered to a sample of 47 outpatients, selected by contingence. Respective mean MMSE for the 2 samples are 24 and 25.1 (adjusted for age and education). The score method shows good internal consistency, with Cronbach's a about 0.75, either for total score or for the 3 sub-scores. Both total score and all sub-scores share correlations with mini mental state examination (MMSE), geriatric depression scale (GDS 5-item form), digit-symbol test, phonetic fluency and constructional apraxia tests. Total score and Group A (visuo-perceptive items) correlate also with cancellation attentional matrices, trail making test A and B, Corsi's cubes and Raven's colored matrices. Group B (attention items) and Group C (numerical factors) lack some of these correlations (Pearson correlation coefficients between 0.264 and 0.629). Neither CDIS total score nor sub-scores (except for numerical factors) correlate with verbal learning and memory. CDIS total cores correlates also with the level of education (r=0.418; p=0.001), but not with age. In conclusion, the clock drawing test, scored by the 20-item CDIS, looks as a homogeneous and analytic test, which is focused on visuo-perceptive and executive skills, while it disregards verbal learning and memory, in elderly people with moderate cognitive impairment. Its 3-item groups show good internal consistency; they also plausibly correlate to specific neuropsychological tests. The almost overlapping results of total and visuo-perceptual sub-score come from the way the test is performed and evaluated. The correlation between CDIS and GDS confirms the relevance of mood towards executive functions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Geriatric Institute Camillo Golgi, Abbiategrasso (Ml), Italy. m.colombo@golgiredaelli.itNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19836615

Citation

Colombo, M, et al. "Clock Drawing Interpretation Scale (CDIS) and Neuro-psychological Functions in Older Adults With Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairments." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, vol. 49 Suppl 1, 2009, pp. 39-48.
Colombo M, Vaccaro R, Vitali SF, et al. Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:39-48.
Colombo, M., Vaccaro, R., Vitali, S. F., Malnati, M., & Guaita, A. (2009). Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 49 Suppl 1, 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2009.09.011
Colombo M, et al. Clock Drawing Interpretation Scale (CDIS) and Neuro-psychological Functions in Older Adults With Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairments. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:39-48. PubMed PMID: 19836615.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments. AU - Colombo,M, AU - Vaccaro,R, AU - Vitali,S F, AU - Malnati,M, AU - Guaita,A, PY - 2009/10/20/entrez PY - 2009/10/27/pubmed PY - 2010/2/2/medline SP - 39 EP - 48 JF - Archives of gerontology and geriatrics JO - Arch Gerontol Geriatr VL - 49 Suppl 1 N2 - The clock drawing test (CDT) is an easy to apply, well accepted and reliable test that is widely used to screen for visuo-constructional difficulties in the aged people. Yet, besides visual agnosia and constructional apraxia, executive control influences performances in this task. Execution modalities and rating schemes vary widely, as for the way stimuli are proposed, the time to which the clock is set, and the elements that are considered for scoring. The scoring system we have selected is called clock drawing interpretation scale (CDIS) contains 20 items in 3 areas: visuo-perceptual, attentional and numerical factors. Our aim is to know the meanings of the CDIS total and sub-areas score, investigating the relationships with specific neuropsychological tests, in elderly persons with moderate cognitive impairment. CDIS has been administered to 90 people, aged about 75 years, attending our rehabilitative day hospital or our memory clinic. A neuropsychological battery has been administered to a sample of 47 outpatients, selected by contingence. Respective mean MMSE for the 2 samples are 24 and 25.1 (adjusted for age and education). The score method shows good internal consistency, with Cronbach's a about 0.75, either for total score or for the 3 sub-scores. Both total score and all sub-scores share correlations with mini mental state examination (MMSE), geriatric depression scale (GDS 5-item form), digit-symbol test, phonetic fluency and constructional apraxia tests. Total score and Group A (visuo-perceptive items) correlate also with cancellation attentional matrices, trail making test A and B, Corsi's cubes and Raven's colored matrices. Group B (attention items) and Group C (numerical factors) lack some of these correlations (Pearson correlation coefficients between 0.264 and 0.629). Neither CDIS total score nor sub-scores (except for numerical factors) correlate with verbal learning and memory. CDIS total cores correlates also with the level of education (r=0.418; p=0.001), but not with age. In conclusion, the clock drawing test, scored by the 20-item CDIS, looks as a homogeneous and analytic test, which is focused on visuo-perceptive and executive skills, while it disregards verbal learning and memory, in elderly people with moderate cognitive impairment. Its 3-item groups show good internal consistency; they also plausibly correlate to specific neuropsychological tests. The almost overlapping results of total and visuo-perceptual sub-score come from the way the test is performed and evaluated. The correlation between CDIS and GDS confirms the relevance of mood towards executive functions. SN - 1872-6976 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19836615/Clock_drawing_interpretation_scale__CDIS__and_neuro_psychological_functions_in_older_adults_with_mild_and_moderate_cognitive_impairments_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0167-4943(09)00211-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -