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Depression outcome among a biracial sample of depressed urban elders.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2009; 17(11):943-52AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

There are a paucity of long-term studies from the United States concerning predictors of outcome among depressed older community adults. This article examines predictors of depression in a biracial sample of older persons in Brooklyn, NY.

METHODS

The authors conducted a naturalistic study of 110 persons aged 55 years and older living in randomly selected block groups who had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score of > or = 8 at baseline. Persons were reassessed on an average of 3 years later. Their mean age was 69 years, 52% were women, and 35% were whites, and 65% were blacks, among whom 71% were African Caribbeans. Using George's Social Antecedent Model of Depression, the authors examined the impact of 13 predictor variables on two outcome measures: presence of either subsyndromal or syndromal depression (CES-D score > or = 8) and presence of syndromal depression (CES-D score > or = 16). To control for design effects, the authors used SUDAAN for the data analysis.

RESULTS

On follow-up, 82% and 88% of subsyndromally and syndromally depressed persons at baseline, respectively, were depressed (CES-D > or = 8). In logistic regression, baseline depressive symptoms, baseline anxiety symptoms, greater increase in anxiety symptoms during the follow-up period, and higher locus of control were predictors of any level of depression. These four variables along with greater paranoid ideation and/or psychoses and more reliable social contacts were significant predictors of syndromal depression on follow-up. There were no inter- or intraracial differences in outcome.

CONCLUSION

Depressed community elders in Brooklyn have highly unfavorable outcomes. Preventive strategies that target at-risk persons-i.e., especially those with baseline subsyndromal depression, greater anxiety symptoms, and more paranoid ideation and/or psychoses-may reduce the development of severe or persistent depression.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, NY 11203, USA. carl.cohen@downstate.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19855198

Citation

Cohen, Carl I., et al. "Depression Outcome Among a Biracial Sample of Depressed Urban Elders." The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 11, 2009, pp. 943-52.
Cohen CI, Goh KH, Yaffee RA. Depression outcome among a biracial sample of depressed urban elders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(11):943-52.
Cohen, C. I., Goh, K. H., & Yaffee, R. A. (2009). Depression outcome among a biracial sample of depressed urban elders. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(11), pp. 943-52. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181b970c7.
Cohen CI, Goh KH, Yaffee RA. Depression Outcome Among a Biracial Sample of Depressed Urban Elders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(11):943-52. PubMed PMID: 19855198.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Depression outcome among a biracial sample of depressed urban elders. AU - Cohen,Carl I, AU - Goh,Kah Hong, AU - Yaffee,Robert A, PY - 2009/10/27/entrez PY - 2009/10/27/pubmed PY - 2010/4/14/medline SP - 943 EP - 52 JF - The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry JO - Am J Geriatr Psychiatry VL - 17 IS - 11 N2 - OBJECTIVES: There are a paucity of long-term studies from the United States concerning predictors of outcome among depressed older community adults. This article examines predictors of depression in a biracial sample of older persons in Brooklyn, NY. METHODS: The authors conducted a naturalistic study of 110 persons aged 55 years and older living in randomly selected block groups who had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) score of > or = 8 at baseline. Persons were reassessed on an average of 3 years later. Their mean age was 69 years, 52% were women, and 35% were whites, and 65% were blacks, among whom 71% were African Caribbeans. Using George's Social Antecedent Model of Depression, the authors examined the impact of 13 predictor variables on two outcome measures: presence of either subsyndromal or syndromal depression (CES-D score > or = 8) and presence of syndromal depression (CES-D score > or = 16). To control for design effects, the authors used SUDAAN for the data analysis. RESULTS: On follow-up, 82% and 88% of subsyndromally and syndromally depressed persons at baseline, respectively, were depressed (CES-D > or = 8). In logistic regression, baseline depressive symptoms, baseline anxiety symptoms, greater increase in anxiety symptoms during the follow-up period, and higher locus of control were predictors of any level of depression. These four variables along with greater paranoid ideation and/or psychoses and more reliable social contacts were significant predictors of syndromal depression on follow-up. There were no inter- or intraracial differences in outcome. CONCLUSION: Depressed community elders in Brooklyn have highly unfavorable outcomes. Preventive strategies that target at-risk persons-i.e., especially those with baseline subsyndromal depression, greater anxiety symptoms, and more paranoid ideation and/or psychoses-may reduce the development of severe or persistent depression. SN - 1545-7214 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19855198/Depression_outcome_among_a_biracial_sample_of_depressed_urban_elders_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/00019442-200911000-00006 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -