Nutritional inadequacies in patients with stable heart failure.J Am Diet Assoc 2009; 109(11):1909-13JA
Sodium restriction is the primary nutritional strategy in heart failure; however, other diet-related concerns may also occur. We characterized dietary intake among stable patients with heart failure and a non-heart-failure cardiac control group to quantify and determine prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake. Two 3-day food records were completed by 123 patients with heart failure and 58 controls. A subset of each group provided two 24-hour urine collections. Mean intake of sodium (2,540+/-1,122 vs 2,596+/-1,184 mg/day) and potassium (3,190+/-980 vs 3,114+/-828 mg/day) was similar between the heart failure and control groups. Prevalence of inadequate potassium intake was 94% among patients with heart failure and 91% among controls. More than 50% in each group had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamins D and E. In stable patients with heart failure, sodium intake was not excessive. However, we demonstrated widespread dietary inadequacies of other vitamins and minerals. These findings highlight the importance of diet beyond that of sodium restriction.