Cigarette smoking associated with advanced periodontal destruction in a Greek sample population of patients with periodontal disease.J Int Acad Periodontol. 2009 Oct; 11(4):250-7.JI
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factor related to the severity of periodontal destruction in an adult Greek population and to determine possible risk factors of chronic periodontal disease.
The 115 participants (mean age 47.5, range 28-74 years) were referred for periodontal treatment in two high-standard therapeutic centers. All individuals were clinically examined and answered a detailed questionnaire. The sociodemographic characteristics and periodontal findings were recorded and statistically analyzed.
The prevalence of periodontal destruction was significantly high, as 91.3% of the participants had at least one tooth with attachment loss > or = 7 mm and 73% presented with mean loss of attachment > 4 mm. In this subject cohort, 31.3% had never smoked, 15.7% had quit smoking, and 53% were currently smokers (heavy, moderate, or occasional). Heavy smokers exhibited worse periodontal tissue breakdown and less bleeding tendency compared to moderate, infrequent, or never smokers. Among the other investigated parameters, age and customary oral hygiene practices were correlated with periodontal pocket formation and clinical attachment loss.
The results of this study suggest that smoking appears to be a major environmental factor associated with accelerated periodontal destruction in an adult urban Greek population with regular oral hygiene habits.