Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressacees).J Food Sci. 2009 Sep; 74(7):M364-71.JF
GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of essential oils of Juniperus phoenicea resulted in the identification of 30 compounds, representing more than 98% of the total composition. alpha-pinene (55.7% and 80.7%), delta-3-carene (10.7% and 4.5%), and gamma-cadinene (2.9% and 5.1%) were the main components, respectively, in leaves and berries essential oil. Extracts of J. phoenicea were obtained by different extraction solvents: methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and dichloromethane and evaluated composition for polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent 52 to 217 g/kg), tannins (catechin equivalent 6.5 to 60.2 g/kg), antocyanins (cyanidin equivalent 84 to 373 mg/kg), and flavonoids (quercetin equivalent 6.4 to 29.3 g/kg). The samples (essential oils and extracts) were subjected to a screening for their antioxidant activity by using DPPH and ABTS assays; antimicrobial activity was tested with 6 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative), 1 yeast, and 2 fungi. The strongest antioxidant activity was obtained by the methanolic extract (IC(50)= 6.5 +/- 0.3 mg/L). Flavonoids are likely to contribute to the antifungal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Correlations were studied between chemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.