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Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study.
Psychol Med. 2010 Jul; 40(7):1193-201.PM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI, and whether the predictive accuracy was modified by age, the presence of amnestic MCI or the length of follow-up.

METHOD

Newly referred subjects (n=263) with MCI older than 55 years were selected from a memory clinic and followed up after 2, 5 and 10 years. Predictors investigated were: symptoms of depression, anxiety, apathy and sleeping problems.

RESULTS

Affective symptoms were present in 50-70% of the subjects. The average follow-up period was 5.4 years and 79 subjects (29%) developed AD. Sleeping problems were associated with a decreased risk for AD [odds ratio (OR) 0.35, p<0.001]. Symptoms of depression (OR 0.61, p=0.059) and anxiety (OR 0.58, p=0.051) showed a trend in the same direction. The OR of apathy for AD was 0.67 (p=0.14). Depression was associated with a decreased risk for AD only in subjects without amnestic MCI, but not in subjects with amnestic MCI. Moreover, anxiety was related to the risk for AD differently between subjects diagnosed with AD at the 5-year follow-up (OR 0.23) and subjects diagnosed with AD at the 10-year follow-up (OR 1.7).

CONCLUSIONS

Affective symptoms are associated with a decreased risk for AD. The risk may be dependent on MCI subtype or length of follow-up, but it does not depend on age.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Alzheimer Centre Limburg, NL-6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. i.ramakers@np.unimaas.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19903364

Citation

Ramakers, I H G B., et al. "Affective Symptoms as Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease in Subjects With Mild Cognitive Impairment: a 10-year Follow-up Study." Psychological Medicine, vol. 40, no. 7, 2010, pp. 1193-201.
Ramakers IH, Visser PJ, Aalten P, et al. Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study. Psychol Med. 2010;40(7):1193-201.
Ramakers, I. H., Visser, P. J., Aalten, P., Kester, A., Jolles, J., & Verhey, F. R. (2010). Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study. Psychological Medicine, 40(7), 1193-201. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291709991577
Ramakers IH, et al. Affective Symptoms as Predictors of Alzheimer's Disease in Subjects With Mild Cognitive Impairment: a 10-year Follow-up Study. Psychol Med. 2010;40(7):1193-201. PubMed PMID: 19903364.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study. AU - Ramakers,I H G B, AU - Visser,P J, AU - Aalten,P, AU - Kester,A, AU - Jolles,J, AU - Verhey,F R J, Y1 - 2009/11/11/ PY - 2009/11/12/entrez PY - 2009/11/12/pubmed PY - 2010/9/21/medline SP - 1193 EP - 201 JF - Psychological medicine JO - Psychol Med VL - 40 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI, and whether the predictive accuracy was modified by age, the presence of amnestic MCI or the length of follow-up. METHOD: Newly referred subjects (n=263) with MCI older than 55 years were selected from a memory clinic and followed up after 2, 5 and 10 years. Predictors investigated were: symptoms of depression, anxiety, apathy and sleeping problems. RESULTS: Affective symptoms were present in 50-70% of the subjects. The average follow-up period was 5.4 years and 79 subjects (29%) developed AD. Sleeping problems were associated with a decreased risk for AD [odds ratio (OR) 0.35, p<0.001]. Symptoms of depression (OR 0.61, p=0.059) and anxiety (OR 0.58, p=0.051) showed a trend in the same direction. The OR of apathy for AD was 0.67 (p=0.14). Depression was associated with a decreased risk for AD only in subjects without amnestic MCI, but not in subjects with amnestic MCI. Moreover, anxiety was related to the risk for AD differently between subjects diagnosed with AD at the 5-year follow-up (OR 0.23) and subjects diagnosed with AD at the 10-year follow-up (OR 1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Affective symptoms are associated with a decreased risk for AD. The risk may be dependent on MCI subtype or length of follow-up, but it does not depend on age. SN - 1469-8978 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19903364/Affective_symptoms_as_predictors_of_Alzheimer's_disease_in_subjects_with_mild_cognitive_impairment:_a_10_year_follow_up_study_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0033291709991577/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -