Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure.Environ Pollut. 2010 Mar; 158(3):674-80.EP
Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 microg L(-1)) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 microg MC-LR equivalents L(-1) over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 microg total MCs g(-1) dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 microg total MCs g(-1) DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 microg g(-1) DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web.