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Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Oct; 19(5):547-60.IJ

Abstract

Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to improve fluid retention and endurance performance compared with water-induced hyperhydration. The goal of this article is to report on what is known and unknown about how glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions (GCHSs) are processed at the stomach and intestine level, propose strategies to improve the efficacy of GIH, and provide research questions for future studies. Through statistical analyses, it is demonstrated that the effectiveness of GCHSs in increasing fluid retention is maximized when fluid ingestion is in the upper range of what is normally administered by studies (~26 ml/kg body weight) and the duration of the protocol is no longer than the time it takes for the glycerol-fluid load to be totally or nearly completely integrated inside the body. The rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of GCHSs is unknown. However, based on an analysis of indirect evidence obtained from human studies, it is proposed that most glycerol (~80 g) and fluid (~1,700 ml) ingested during a typical GIH protocol can be integrated inside the body within 60-90 min. Whether the stress associated with competition could alter these figures is unknown. Research in rats indicates that combining glycerol with glucose at a 3:1 ratio accelerates intestinal absorption of both glycerol and water, thereby potentially improving the efficacy of GIH. Human studies must be conducted to determine how GCHSs are processed by the gastrointestinal system and whether adding glucose to GCHSs could improve the technique's efficacy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19910655

Citation

Goulet, Eric D B.. "Review of the Effects of Glycerol-containing Hyperhydration Solutions On Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Absorption in Humans and in Rats." International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 19, no. 5, 2009, pp. 547-60.
Goulet ED. Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(5):547-60.
Goulet, E. D. (2009). Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19(5), 547-60.
Goulet ED. Review of the Effects of Glycerol-containing Hyperhydration Solutions On Gastric Emptying and Intestinal Absorption in Humans and in Rats. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19(5):547-60. PubMed PMID: 19910655.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Review of the effects of glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption in humans and in rats. A1 - Goulet,Eric D B, PY - 2009/11/14/entrez PY - 2009/11/17/pubmed PY - 2010/1/30/medline SP - 547 EP - 60 JF - International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism JO - Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab VL - 19 IS - 5 N2 - Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to improve fluid retention and endurance performance compared with water-induced hyperhydration. The goal of this article is to report on what is known and unknown about how glycerol-containing hyperhydration solutions (GCHSs) are processed at the stomach and intestine level, propose strategies to improve the efficacy of GIH, and provide research questions for future studies. Through statistical analyses, it is demonstrated that the effectiveness of GCHSs in increasing fluid retention is maximized when fluid ingestion is in the upper range of what is normally administered by studies (~26 ml/kg body weight) and the duration of the protocol is no longer than the time it takes for the glycerol-fluid load to be totally or nearly completely integrated inside the body. The rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of GCHSs is unknown. However, based on an analysis of indirect evidence obtained from human studies, it is proposed that most glycerol (~80 g) and fluid (~1,700 ml) ingested during a typical GIH protocol can be integrated inside the body within 60-90 min. Whether the stress associated with competition could alter these figures is unknown. Research in rats indicates that combining glycerol with glucose at a 3:1 ratio accelerates intestinal absorption of both glycerol and water, thereby potentially improving the efficacy of GIH. Human studies must be conducted to determine how GCHSs are processed by the gastrointestinal system and whether adding glucose to GCHSs could improve the technique's efficacy. SN - 1526-484X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19910655/Review_of_the_effects_of_glycerol_containing_hyperhydration_solutions_on_gastric_emptying_and_intestinal_absorption_in_humans_and_in_rats_ L2 - https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/ijsnem.19.5.547 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -