Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes.J Athl Train 2009 Nov-Dec; 44(6):624-9JA
To our knowledge, no one has compared the prepractice hydration status of male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes or has studied the effects of the menstrual cycle phase on women's prepractice hydration status.
To report prepractice hydration status of collegiate athletes and determine the factors that might influence that status.
Cross-sectional, descriptive study.
University sports team practices.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS
Participants included 138 male and 125 female athletes (age = 19.9 + or - 1.3 years, height = 165.8 + or - 42.9 cm, mass = 77.4 + or - 17.5 kg) from an NCAA Division I New England university.
One spontaneously voided (spot) urine sample was collected from each participant before his or her team practice and was measured 2 times.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)
A refractometer was used to analyze the amount of light that passed through a small drop of urine and assess urine specific gravity. Fluid intake and menstrual history for women were also collected. Three hydration-status groups were defined based on the American College of Sports Medicine and National Athletic Trainers' Association criteria: (1) euhydrated, which was urine specific gravity less than 1.020; (2) hypohydrated, from 1.020 to 1.029; and (3) significantly hypohydrated, equal to or more than 1.030.
Thirteen percent of student-athletes appeared significantly hypohydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.031 + or - 0.002 (chi(2) = 12.12, P < .05); 53% appeared hypohydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.024 + or - 0.003 (chi(2) = 12.12, P < .05); and 34% appeared euhydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.012 + or - 0.005 (chi(2) = 0.03, P > .05). A greater percentage of men (47%) than women (28%) were hypohydrated (chi(2) = 8.33, P < .05). In women, no difference was evident between the luteal and follicular phases of their menstrual cycles (chi(2) = 0.02, P > .05).
Before activity, athletes were hypohydrated at different levels. A greater percentage of men than women were hypohydrated. Menstrual cycle phase did not appear to affect hydration in women.